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《Automation of Electric Power Systems》 2003-18
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THE WAY FROM A SIMPLE CONTINGENCY TO SYSTEM-WIDE DISASTER ——Lessons from the Eastern Interconnection Blackout in 2003

Xue Yusheng(Nanjing Automation Research Institute, Nanjing 210003, China)  
WSCC blackout in 1996 has been analyzed basically from a pure technical viewpoint and California electricity crisis in 2000 has been discussed from a pure economic viewpoint. However, the possibility of a much more severe blackout had not been cognized before the occurrence of Eastern Interconnection blackout in 2003. As a result, this catastrophe didn't be held out though there is a quite enough time period to arrest the global blackout between two cascading line tripping. Investigations on this catastrophe should be performed in a uniform framework that integrates all important factors, such as the organization of electrical power industry, market operation and surveillance, power system planning, analysis tools, dispatch strategy, information engineering, control schemes, R-D and personnel training, etc. Some important questions are: ① why the cascading tripping can't be stopped since there are respectively 22, 9, 5, 29 minutes to hold out the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th cascading tripping?②why the wide area blackout lasted for as long as 29 hours? The negative effects of electricity market on power system security are analyzed. Lessons on technical aspects include properly sharing information, on-line quantitatively analyzing power system security, on-line refreshing control decision, coordinative defense schemes; coordinating preventive control with emergency control, adaptive system protection schemes, dynamic simulator of both power system and electricity market, etc.