Impact of environmental factors on runoff and sediment variations in middle reaches of the Yellow River
CHEN Hao 1 , ZHOU Jin xing 2 , LU Zhong chen 3 , CHEN Jin rong 4 (1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China; 2. Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry Science, Beijing 1000
In the last decades, especially since the 1980s, variations in runoff and sediment yield have occurred to the trunk stream and the tributaries of the Yellow River. As a consequence of drastic decline of runoff volume and sediment load, downstream channel shrinkage and dried up as well as disasters induced by a minor flooding event happened. In order to understand these new problems and new situations, a great deal of research work and investigations on impacts of climate and human activities on variations of runoff and sediment yield as well as variation characteristics and causes of changes were carried out in China. At present, runoff and sediment change investigations are mainly focused on studies of hydrologic method and water conservation method in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. Since the middle reaches of the river have distinct natural zonal distribution characteristics, both runoff and sediment processes in the drainage system are synthetically affected by environmental factors. Based on observational data of the controlled primary tributary from Hekou to Longmen at midstream section, this paper analyses the variations and causes of runoff and sediment load by using method of geographic environmental factors. The results indicate that runoff volume and sediment load in the Hekouzhen Longmen section of the drainage basin are closely related to the impact of geographic environmental factors. Runoff and sediment variations are a product of synthetic action of natural environmental factors and human activities. In the 1970s, runoff and sediment reduction is mainly affected by decrease of precipitation as control and management practices then are inadequate. In the 1980s, impact of human activities plays a leading role in reducing runoff and sediment load in the basin as control measures of reservoir and dam projects are effective in reducing water and silt load on the Loess Plateau. Since the 1970s, precipitation has played a less role in reducing runoff and sediment but human activities played an increasing role as a result of improvement in soil and water conservation measures. The average water and silt reduction impacted by climate fluctuation and human activities in the 1970s and 1980s is respectively 53.4%, 28.6% and 46.6% and 71.4%.
【Fund】： 国家重点基础研究发展规划项目 (G19990 436 0 4) ;; 地理所知识创新工程领域前沿项目 (CX10G A0 0 0 5 0 2 ) ;; 国家自然科学基金委;; 水利部联合资助重大基金 (5 9890 2 0 0 )
【CateGory Index】： P333.4
【CateGory Index】： P333.4