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Energy consumption and the spatial distribution characteristics of shallow groundwater mining in the south Haihe River plain

ZHANG Shi-feng1,XU Li-sheng1,2(1.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,CAS,Beijing 100101,China;2.Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100039,China)  
This article inferred the formula of accounting energy consumption in mining shallow groundwater,based on the supposition that the energy consumption of groundwater mining is equivalent in the mining well and in its radius of affected area.According to the characteristics of evolution of shallow groundwater seepage field in the south Haihe River plain in the three periods of time,namely,the 1960s,the 1980s and initial period of the 21st century,as wall as integrating the GIS technique,we account the energy consumption and their differences in groundwater mining of the three different typical years(1964,1984 and 2001) of the three periods.The results indicated that,when shallow groundwater table drops deep for 1m in the study area in 1964,1984 and 2001,the energy consumption of groundwater mining is respectively 0.16×108 kw·h,0.65×108 kw·h and 1.2×108kw·h;when shallow groundwater table drops deep for one unit,in comparison with the three different periods of 1964-1984,1984-2001 and 1964-2001,the energy consumption difference of shallow groundwater mining is respectively 0.49×108kw·h,0.55×108 kw·h and 1.04×108 kw·h.After analyzing the spatial distribution map of energy consumption of shallow groundwater mining in different periods of time in the south Haihe River plain,it is found out that,since the 1960s,the energy consumption of shallow groundwater mining has increased substantially,from average 269kwh/km2 to average 1781kwh/km2,due to groundwater overdraft.The computation of the energy consumptions and their difference of shallow groundwater mining both assume the increasing tendency from the alluvial and coast plain region to the Taihang piedmont plain region,the maximum energy consumption of groundwater mining is from 68 kwh/km2 to 8908 kwh/km2,but the energy consumption difference of shallow groundwater mining increases from 4760 kwh/km2 to 8568 kwh/km2.The research results could be used to provide the reference for the social and economic benefits appraisal of the shallow groundwater table rising after implementation of the South to North Water Transfer Project in the study area,and provide service for the research of the local construction of an "abstemious society".
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