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Comparison of cave deposit stratum and reconstruction of landform evolution in Hulu cave of Tangshan,Nanjing

ZHOU Chun-lin1,2,YUAN Lin-wang1,LIANG Zhong1,YOU Hai-ning3,YU Zhao-yuan1,LIU Ze-chun1(1.School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences,Nanjing Normal University,Nanjing 210046,China;2.Nanjing Institute of Tourism and Hospitality,Nanjing 210003,China;3.School of Educational Science,Nanjing Normal University,Nanjing 210097,China)  
The famous fossil site of Hulu cave in Tangshan,Nanjing,is yielding Homo erectus fossils.Relative to the whole study of Homo erectus in Hulu cave,it is the weak link to study the cave deposit and its evolution.Combining with the achievements in chronology research,this paper analyzes the records of the oxide of cave clastic deposit and the fossils of phytolith from four sections with statistical methods,and clarifies the facts of the stratum contrastive relativation of each section.Besides,with the ground penetrating radar(GPR)method,the spatial structure and characteristic of the deposits of the eastern cave have been renewed,and on the basis of the characteristics of the cave clastic sediments,the constructive framework of the cave sections and cave embedding clastic sediments has been set up.The cave sediments in Tangshan,Nanjing have been identified into 7 layers from the bottom to the top as follows:(1)the lower breccia layer in the bottom of the cave,(2)the earth layer containing the breccia deposit,(3)the mid breccia layer,(4)the clastic earth layer,(5)the upper breccia layer,(6)the clastic clay layer,and(7)the pyramidal clastic breccia layer.Among them,the strata where the No.1 skull of Nanjing Man existed could be re-correlated with Layer ③.As the result of the evolution of paleo-climate and environment,the change of dynamic system of cave inside and the effect of local adjustment of erosion datum plane,the development of Hulu cave sediments can be divided into five stages as follows:(1)the erosion deposit stage of the northern cave,(2)the erosion deposit stage of the eastern cave,(3)the erosion deposit stage of the southern fissure cave,(4)the pyramidal deposit stage of the central cave,and(5)the erosion deposit stage of the western cave.The cave evolution could change with the space-time,and it is not so fit for living,thus it reflects that Hulu cave is not a good place for the ancient people.Based on the above researches,the paper provides the new visual angle and methods to discuss and analyze the evolution of karst cave,living age and environment of Homo erectus in Nanjing and further archeology.
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