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Effects of Salt Stress on Photosynthetic Characters and Chloroplast Ultra-structure of Almond

KARIM·Ali~1,HOU Jiang-tao~2,MAIHEMUTI~1,WANG Li-na~1(1 Department of Horticulture,Xinjiang Agricultural University,Urumuqi 830052,China;2 Department of Horticulture,Huayu College,Henan Agricultural University,Shangqiu,Henan 476000,China)  
150,300 and 350 mmol/L NaCl and Na_2SO_4 were used to treat the seed-originated seedlings of Amygdalus communis L.and A.communis var.persiooides in greenhouse.Then the chlorophyll contents,net photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance and intercellular CO_2 concentrations in their leaves were determined and the ultra-structures of the leaves were observed.It was shown that(1) both Amygdalus communis L.and A.communis var.persiooides presented the highest chl a and chl b contents at low concentrations of the salts and the lowest chl a and chl b contents at higher concentrations of the salts,and the chlorophyll contents with Na_2SO_4 were lower than those with NaCl;(2) The net photosynthetic rates of Amygdalus communis L.and A.communis var.persiooides declined with increased salt concentration and the decrement in net photosynthetic rate was larger in Amygdalus communis L.;(3) The intercellular CO_2 concentration of A.communis var.persiooides increased with increased salt concentrations and the variation did not appeared regular;(4) The leaf stomatal conductance of the two declined with increased salt concentrations;(5) The salt stresses resulted in the chloroplast grana and stroma distorted and the choloroplast thylakoids swelling and the effects become intensified with increased salt concentrations,the chloroplasts swelling from elliptical shape to round shape and the chloroplast membrane disintegrating,and the chloroplasts of Amygdalus communis L.were more sensitive to the salt stresses.These results indicated that two salt stresses had different action mechanisms to damage the plants.A.communis var.persiooides was more tolerant to the salt stresses than Amygdalus communis L.
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