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《大气科学进展(英文版)》 2004-03
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Overview of the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment

DING Yihui , LI Chongyin , and LIU Yanju National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081 State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029  
The present paper gives an overview of the key project " South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX)" operated by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China during the period of 1996-2001. The SCSMEX is a joint atmospheric and oceanic field experiment which aims to better understand the onset, maintenance, and variability of the summer monsoon over the South China Sea (SCS). It is a large-scale international effort with many participating countries and regions cooperatively involved in this experiment. With the field observation in May-August 1998, a large amount of meteorological and oceanic data was acquired, which provides excellent datasets for the study of the SCS monsoon and the East Asian monsoon and their interaction with the ocean. The preliminary research achievements are as follows. (1) The earliest onset of the Asian monsoon over the SCS and Indo-China Peninsula has been well documented. Prom the viewpoint of the synoptic process, its onset is closely related to the early rapid development of a twin cyclone to the east of Sri Lanka. The conceptual modei of the SCS monsoon onset in 1998 was put forward. The 50-year time series of the SCS monsoon onset date was also made. (2) Two major modes, namely the 30-60-day and 10-20-day oscillations were ascertained. The influences of the abnormal SCS monsoon on the precipitation over eastern China and its modes were identifled. A strong (weak) monsoon over the SCS usually leads to less (more) precipitation over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, and more (less) precipitation in North China. (3) During the monsoon onset over the SCS, a wide variety of organized mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) were observed by a Doppler radar array deployed over the northern SCS. The relationship between large-scale circulations and MCSs during the monsoon onset process in 1998 was clearly revealed. It was suggested that there is a kind of positive feedback mechanism between large-scale circulations and MCSs. (4) The SST over the SCS during the early period influences the timing of the monsoon onset date and the monsoon's intensity. During the monsoon onset, the ocean undergoes a process of energy release through air-sea interaction. During the break phase of the SCS monsoon, the ocean demonstrates the process of energy re-accumulation. Obvious differences in the air-sea turbulent flux exchange between the southern and northern parts of the SCS due to different characteristic features of the atmosphere and sea structure were observed in those regions. (5) The verification of impact of intensive observations on the predictive performance is made by the use of regional models. The air-sea coupled regional climate modei (CRCM) was also developed under the SCSMEX Project . The simulation of the oceanic circulation in 1998 produced with the modei was well compared with the observations.
【CateGory Index】: P732
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