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《Earth Science(Journal of China University of Geosciences)》 2009-01
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On the Lithosphere of Indo-Asia Collision Zone in Southern Tibet:Petrological and Geochemical Constraints

MO Xuan-xue1,2,ZHAO Zhi-dan1,2,ZHU Di-cheng1,2,YU Xue-hui1,DONG Guo-chen1,2,ZHOU Su11.State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing100083,China2.School of Earth Science and Resources,China University of Geosciences,Beijing100083  
This paper discusses the composition and structure of the lithosphere of the Tibetan Plateau,especially of the main collision zone in southern Tibet upon the basis of petrological and geochemical studies,combining with geological and geophysical researches.The Indo-Asia main collision zone possess the thickest crust of the Tibetan Plateau,which consists of two different types of the crust,juvenile crust and recycled crust.The thicken crust formed by two mechanism,both structural thickening and the inputs of the mantle materials into the crust via magmatism.The lithospheric mantle underneath the Tibetan Plateau is inhomogeneous in petrology and geochemistry.At least three mantle isotopic reservoirs may be distinguished from the heterogeneity of Tibetan magmatic sources:(1)a Neo-Tethyan,Indian Ocean(DUPAL-like)component,(2)an EM2-rich Indian subcontinental lithospheric mantle component,and(3)a primordial Tibetan lithospheric mantle component generated prior to the India-Asia collision,which can also be considered the pre-(India-Asia)collisional Asian lithospheric mantle component.Also,some mantle-and lower crust-derived xenoliths carried by volcanics,and the outcrops of high pressure-ultrahigh pressure mineral assemblages have been found on the Tibetan Plateau.Three structural types of the lithosphere of the Tibetan Plateau can be distinguished,i.e.,thickened lithosphere(Pamirs-type),thinned lithosphere(Gangdese-type)and thickened-thinned-rethickened lithosphere(Qiangtang-type).The temporal relations among these three structural types of the lithosphere,however,is unclear so far.The post-collisional potassic-ultrapotassic volcanism along the Gangdese was presumably related to slab break-off of the subducting Neo-Tethyan plate and the subduction of Indian continental lithosphere beneath the Lhasa Block,with different mechanism in western,middle and eastern segments,respectively.In the northern part of the plateau(the Qiangtang,the Hoh Xil,etc.),however,volcanism could be related to a wavelike outward propagation of upwelling asthenosphere.In the northern margin of the plateau(western Kunlun,Yumen,etc.),volcanism might be as a result of decompressive melting induced by large-scale strike-slip faulting.Migration of collisional and postcollisional volcanism with time shows a highly distinctive pattern.Initially,as an initial response to the India-Asia collision,igneous activity migrated northward between ca.65 and 45Ma,away from the Tsangpo collision suture.Between ca.45 and 6Ma,volcanic activity migrated outward from the plateau interior,implying wavelike outward propagation of upwelling asthenosphere.A third stage,still in progress,is marked by the migration of activity to northwestern,northeast-eastern,and southeastern peripheral regions of the plateau between 6Ma and the present.Overall,such a highly distinctive pattern of activity can be interpreted to reflect lateral asthenospheric mantle flow or lower crust flow induced by the approach,and ensuing collision,of relatively thick(India and Eurasia)continental plates.
【Fund】: 国家重点基础研究计划项目(Nos.2009CB421002 2002CB412603);; 国家自然科学基金项目(Nos.40830317 40873023 40473020 40103003 40234052 40172025 49802005 49772107);; 国土资源部西藏专项计划项目(No.2003009);; “111计划”项目(No.B07011)
【CateGory Index】: P583;P542
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