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《Chinese Journal of Geophysics》 2015-10
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Present-day heat flow and tectonic-thermal evolution since the late Paleozoic time of the Qaidam basin

LI Zong-Xing;GAO Jun;ZHENG Ce;LIU Cheng-Lin;MA Yin-Sheng;ZHAO Wei-Yong;Key Laboratory of Shale Oil and Gas Geological Survey,Institute of Geomechanics,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences;Beijing Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Environment and Engineering,China University of Geosciences;China University of Petroleum;Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development,Qinghai Oilfield,CNPC;  
The Qaidam basin is the largest intermountain basin on the northern margin of the Tibetan plateau,and is one of three major petroliferous basins in western China.The characteristics of tectonic-thermal evolution of this basin are important for understanding the uplift mechanism ofthe Tibetan plateau.This work studies the terrestrial heat flow and thermal history of the basin,which would help research the regional dynamics and tectonic evolution of the basin and can be applied to the petroleum resource assessment in this region.This work employed the advanced temperature continuous acquisition system which measures the deep well steady state temperature at a large scale and high accuracy.Then mass of rock thermal conductivity was tested by the optical scanning method. Borehole temperature measurement data were fitted linearly using the least squares method,yielding 17 borehole profiles of geothermal gradients.Furthermore,original temperature measurement data from previous studies were re-analyzed,resulting in 56 geothermal gradients and the measured heat flow data of boreholes.Based on the present geothermal field,the time-temperature history of the samples was simulated by the combination of analysis of apatite fission track ages with modeling of fission track length distribution.For this simulation,the one-component annealing model,Monte Carlo method,and the software Hefty were used.Apatite samples enclosed track length values and the median age were adopted to simulate the basic parameters,with kinetic parameter(Dpar)as the initial value of 1.65,and the initial track length 16.3μm.To the zircon fission track samples which did not pass2 test(P(2)5%),decomposition on single grain fission track age data and frequency statistics analysis were carried out.Based on the analysis of thermochronological dating,we have studied the burial history,uplift and denudation and thermal history of the Qaidam basin.Then we analyzed the tectonic evolution of the Qaidam basin combining with regional tectonic setting.Geothermal gradients of the Qaidam basin vary from 17.1to 38.6℃·km-1 with an average of 28.6±4.6 ℃·km-1.The thermal conductivity of the basin varies from 0.601 W/(m·K)to5.520 W/(m·K)with an average of 2.208 W/(m·K),mostly in the range 1.820 W/(m·K)to 3.020 W/(m·K).Present-day terrestrial heat flow in this area varies from 32.9to 70.4mW·m-2,with an average of 55.1±7.9mW·m-2.The test shows that the apatite fission track age varies from 61 Ma to 72 Ma,less than the formation age.The mean closed track length varies from11.8to 12.7μm,less than the initial length of the track(16.3±0.9μm),implying a single-mode distribution.The test results of zircon samples show that the zircon fission track ages concentrate in 155 Ma to 195 Ma,less than the formation age,which have two time periods,i.e.from254 Ma to 199 Ma and from 177 Ma to 148.6 Ma.There exits the distribution difference of the geothermal field in the Qaidam basin.The Kunbei thrust belt and Yiliping depression are "hot zones",the Qilian thrust belt is a "warm zone",and the Sanhu depression,Oulongbuluke uplift,and Delingha depression are "cold zones".Such distributions of the geothermal field might be controlled by crustal structure in the basin.Based on the present-day geothermal field,the burial history,uplift and denudation and thermal history of Qaidam basin are studied by the combination of analysis of apatite fission track and zircon fission track ages with modeling of fission track length distribution.In terms of the analysis of thermochronological dating,we further explore the tectonic evolution of the Qaidam basin combining with regional tectonic setting.The results show that the Qaidam basin had experienced tectonic movements of six phases(254.0—199 Ma,177—148.6 Ma,87—62 Ma,41.1—33.6 Ma,9.6—7.1 Ma,2.9—1.8 Ma);these tectonic events just coincided with the regional tectonic settings of the study area.The eastern Qaidam basin was uplifted and suffered denudation.The prototype of the Oulongbuluke uplift was also formed in the end of Cretaceous(41.1—33.6 Ma),however,the depression basin developed under the weak compressive tectonicregime in the northern Qaidam basin.The present tectonic features of the Qaidam basin appeared after uplift and great structural deformation,which was related with the intense extrusion since the end of Miocene(9.6—7.1 Ma and 2.9—1.8 Ma).
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金项目(41302202);; 中国地质科学院地质力学研究所基本科研项目(DZLXJK201305)资助
【CateGory Index】: P618.13;P314
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