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《Acta Geoscientica Sinica》 2006-05
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Three Important Research Projects:Geomechanics, Deep Geology and Scientific Drilling opened a New Chapter in the Geoscience History of China——Celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences

ZHAO Wenjin Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Beijing, 100037  
Three important events are worth mentioning in the course of growth of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, i.e., the development of the geomechanics created by Li Siguang, the advance of the multi_discipline deep geological investigation and research in the Qinghai—Tibet plateau of China, and the completion of the first scientific drill hole, which has opened up the scientific drilling course in China. These are all important events with milestone significance in the history of geological work in China.①Geomechanics. Applying the principles and research methods of mechanics (kinesiology, matecial mechanics and dynamics) to the study of the origin and evolution of the crustal deformation structure and crustal movement, Li Siguang created and developed a new discipline-geomechanics, and published in 1945 the book 《The Foundation and Method of Geomechanics》. Li Siguang said: “The significance of geomechanics lies in searching for the cause of the movement that takes place in the crust of various regions from the forms of various deformations and destructions the rock bodies at surface have experienced and on the basis of mechanic principle (The author of this paper holds that this is a problem of the mechanism of dynamics)". He confirmed the existence of the large_scale horizontal crustal movements, and put forward the idea that these movements originate from the variation of the rotation of the earth. Aimed at searching for the origin of the movement and the role of the power, he suggested studying the relationship between strain and stress in various materials and the mechanic properties of rocks, which included the strength and rigidity of rocks and the variation regularity of rocks under the conditions of different temperatures, pressures and stresses. He put forward the constitution system of tectonic deformation, and made a thorough study of the tectonic system. These characteristics made the geomechanics completely different from the traditional geological thought. The establishment of the Institute of Geomechanics in 1956 greatly accelerated the development of this discipline. Years of practices have proved the great vitality of geomechanics, and its academic thought is in the forefront position; ②The performance of high_level deep geological investigation. The surface geological structure is different from the geological structure at depth, and mineral resources and earthquakes all occur in the depth. Aimed at deepening the understanding of regional geology of China, the former Ministry of Geology started in 1980 the study of the Himalayan crust and the upper mantle in cooperation with French geologists. In 1985, geologists began to conduct the study of the geotraverse from Yadong of the Himalayan Mountain through Golmud of Qinghai to Ejin Banner in Inner Mongolia, which passed through the Qinghai—Tibet plateau in north_south direction. Since 1992, geologists from China, the USA, Germany and Canada have carried out deep profile research (INPEPTH) in the Qinghai—Tibet plateau, and geologists from China and France have performed the second and the third geoscience cooperation. All these researches are still going on today. With the integrated deep reflection seismic exploration, wide_angle seismic exploration and natural seismic array as the main means, the INDEPTH project, combined with such multi_discipline techniques as deep and shallow magnetotelluric prospecting, magnetic survey, tectonic geology and geochemistry, has made lots of important geological achievements. This project has created a working model and attracted geologists' attention all over the world; ③The implementation of the first scientific drill hole in China. In addition to checking and verifying geophysical data obtained in structurally complex areas, the drilling has made many new discoveries concerning the existing conditions of creatures, and provided new evidence for the exhumation mechanism of the eclogite bed in the Dabie Mountain. On such a basis, China has begun the second and the third scientific drilling work so as to further deepening the understanding of the conditions of mineral resources and environment in China. The scientific deep drilling work itself has promoted the research and development of the drilling technology in China.
【CateGory Index】: P5-24
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