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《Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences》 2005-06
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A Study of the Formation of Initial Radar Field in Estimating Areal Rainfall Using Radar and Rain-gauge

LI Jian-Tong~(1,2,3),GUO Lin~(2),and YANG Hong-Ping~(4)1 Institute of Atmospheric Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 1000292 Xiamen Meteorological Bureau,Xiamen 361012 3 Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Science,Beijing 1000494 Institute of Heavy Rain,China Meteorological Administrator,Wuhan 430000  
It has been the focus for meteorologist to estimate the distribution and amount of regional rainfall by using weather radar,but the previous work mainly depends on the statistic relationship between radar reflectivity factor(Z) and rainfall rate(I).Since the 1970s,much effort has been put in the study of combining radar and rainfall-gauge to estimate regional rainfall.However,the performance of the radar initial field used for calibration largely affects the ultimate accuracy of estimation and rainfall distribution in this combination.Thus,this paper focuses on the capability of the radar initial field to describe the spatial distribution of the rainfall,which is very important for improving the precision of estimating regional rainfall by radar and rain-gauge. After analyzing the disadvantage of the radar initial field formed by using the four previously methods—Plan Position Indicator(PPI) product of low angle,Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator(CAPPI) product of three kilometer,PPI product of Hybrid Scan,and profiles of radar reflectivity,it is found that the time-consistency is not considered enough in above four methods by us.Therefore,based on the demands of initial field,a new method to form the initial field of radar data,Time Weight Average(TWA) Method,is proposed.The theoretical analysis of the new method indicates that it can overcome the random error of the radar initial field and eliminate the influence of ground clutter on the estimation precision to some extent.Furthermore,it can recover the actual rainfall distribution in the area without the radar echo due to blocking effect of ground-based target,and reflect the migration of the rainfall echo.As a result,the composite radar initial field shows in good accordance with the actual rainfall distribution.Analysis of the actual radar and rain-gauge data collected during 19961997 indicates as follows: (1) The TWA method sufficiently considers the time consistency between the radar detection and the observation of rain-gauge,so it can improve the capability of the radar data to describe the strong center and the spatial distribution of the rainfall.Thus,it meets the demands of regional rainfall estimation by radar and rain-gauge on the initial field of radar echo.(2) The initial field of radar echo formed using the new method accords with the surface observation in the characteristics of the center location,scope and the values of rainfall,and its accuracy of single point is higher than other initial fields.More than 70 percent of the initial error of the composite radar initial fields is under the initial error at every observational time.It means that the initial error is decreased.(3) The TWA method shows the clear physical concept and can be treated simply.The principle is used to form the initial field of the CINRAD/SA radar data in the Huanghe River and Huaihe River valleys rainstorm forecasting system in 2003.The result indicates that the TWA method is able to improve the initial field for estimating rainfall by radar,and reflect the actual rainfall distribution preferably,thus improves the accuracy of estimating regional rainfall.
【Fund】: 国家水利部和国家气象局联合项目HH-2000-4
【CateGory Index】: P412.13
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【Co-citations】
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