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《SCIENTIA ATMOSPHERICA SINICA》 1998-06
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Onset of the Southeast Asia Summer Monsoon in 1979 and the Effect of the Tibetan Plateau

Yang Hui, Song Zhengshan and Zhu Baozhen ( Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029)  
The Southeast Asia summer monsoons (SE Asia monsoon) normally taking place in May has been recognized as the first seasonal transition stage from spring to summer. In this paper, utilizing the twice-daily FGGE-IIIb grid point data set in the area 40°S~50°N, 30~160°E, from 26 April to 25 May, the temperature, moisture and wind fields are analysed. Through caculating the divergent wind and heat and moisture budgets, the characteristics and the original sources of the SE Asia monsoons are discussed with an emphasis on the dynamic and thermodynamic effects of the Tibetan Plateau. The major factors responsible for the establishment of the SE Asia monsoon are the certain flow pattern distributed in mid-latitudes, the southerly flow originated from tropical ocean area and the influences of the Tibetan Plateau. During the onset of the SE Asia monsoon, there is a dramatic circulation adjustment process of westerlies occuring at the 200 hPa, resulting in a large amplitude ridge staying over the Plateau and troughs each on the west and lee side of the topography. It is found that four branches of divergent air streams coming from differently original sources contributed to the intense convergence in Southeast Asia: 1) the southerly divergent airstream between 80~120°E; 2) the northwesterly divergent wind flowing along the western flank of the Plateau; 3) the northeasterly divergent airstream along the eastern periphery of the Plateau; 4) the easterly divergent wind over the west Pacific Ocean. The disturbances in southern branch of westerlies along the southwestern flank of the Plateau induce the SE Asia monsoon rainfall. The southwestlies over the Southeast Asia is from tropical ocean area of the Southern Hemisphere. The roles of low-level southwestly flow transports the moisture air and increases dynamic convergence. The intense heat source over Southeast Asia due to the release of latent heat in association with the monsoon precipitation is the main mechanism of driving the circulation systems of the SE Asia monsoons. The heat source dominates throughout the entire analysed period over the Plateau. he sensible heating and the dynamic effect are favorable to the establishment and maintenance of the ridge over the Plateau and the troughs on the west and lee side of the topography.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金
【CateGory Index】: P461.3,P425.42
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