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《Quaternary Sciences》 1990-03
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STUDY ON LOESS ALONG THE URUMQI RIVER VALLEY

Gao Cunhai (Xinjiang Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences) Liu Jiaqi (Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences)  
A large loess is extensively distributed in the northern piedmont of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang Autonomous region, West China. Loess is usually located at the old fan and basin along the Urumqi River Valley, such as Kaziwan, Daxigou, and Houxia, with different thickness ranging from ten centimeters to more than ten meters. The grain analyses indicate that loess is mainly composed of silt, with average size ranging between 5.17—7.71φ, and gralually increasing from the upper reach to the lower reach of the Urumqi River. Meanwhile, the loess deposition condition shows more and more complex. According to the pollen composition of loess, it can be seen that Loess is formed in typical desert and semidesert environment. Loess comprises some thirty sorts of heavy minerals, most of them are hornblendes and epidotes, acounting for more than 50% of the total with lower steady coefficient from 0.17 to 0.39. With the decrease of unsteady minerals the steady coefficient gradually increases from top to base in the vertical section. On the basis of geological occurrence, radiocarbon and thermoluminescene dating, it can be shown that most loess along the Urumqi River has been formed since the late Pleistocene, roughly corresponding to the last glacial epoch. The materials consisting of loess may have come from the deserts to the north as well as the river head. Loess genesis can be divided into two processes: aeolian and hydrogeneous.
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