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ON THE RED WEATHERING CRUSTS OF SOUTHERN CHINA

Xi Chengfan (Nanjing Institute of Soil Science,Chinese Academy of Sciences)  
Red clay materials formed by chemical weathering under wet tropical and subtropicalconditiins are widely distributed in Southern China,south of Yangtze River.They are formedby leaching away of alkaline and alkaline earth ions accompanied with moving out of silicaions from the bed rocks and weathering crust.Under the rainforests,seasonal rainforests and broadleaf forests,various ferrallitic soilssuch as latosols,latosolic red earths,red earths and yellow earths are formed.The present paper discusses the stratification of Quaternary.It is considered that thematerials of red clay mixed with round gravels and pebbles are the lower Pleistocene (Q_1).While the thick plinthic red clay beds are the middle Pleistocene (Q_2) and the homogeneousred clay with four layers are upper Pleistocene (Q_3).The red coloured weathering surfaceon the thick gray sands are the result of the early Holocene.Station observation shows thatthe desilicification and ferrallitic weathering are still going on.
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