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《Quaternary Sciences》 2005-06
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SHUIDONGGOU:A VANE OF INTERCOMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE EAST AND THE WEST?——DISCUSSION ABOUT SMALL TOOL CULTURE IN NORTH CHINA AND A HYPOTHESIS OF THE “LITHIC ROAD”

Hou Yamei(Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044)  
Since the first discovery of Shuidonggou (SDG) culture, its western characters of Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic has attracted much attention and adduced as favorable evidence of communication between the East and the West. However, it is still vague about how the communication occurred in this cultural phenomenon, or it is just telling one story of “complete influence from the West”. By recognizing the existence of Levallois technique in SDG culture this opinion can only be reinforced. Whereas, new evidence make it possible to be doubted and survey anew the content and significance of the culture. Based on many fine researching work made by scholars home and abroad, a pertinent study has been carried out and many common phenomena of typical Paleolithic sites in North China and circumjacent region have been revealed. Among them, the “Donggutuo (DGT) core” identified by the present author from SDG and some other sites is taken as a key clue and full characteristic of Eastern cultural style rooted in the East far time ago. Corresponding to Levallois core in the West, the DGT core is an Eastern example as a cultural mark in prehistoric time. Nay, it had been exported and transported into a big surrounding area in North China and Northeastern Asia. The “DGT core” and relevant cultural assemblages provide a lineal development of Paleolithic culture in North China. It represents the most primitive shape of narrow-shaped core which has been researched as a rooted type of microlithic wedge-shaped core in the vast territory of Northeast Asia, especially in East Asia. The “DGT core” can be taken as the earliest and the most important evidence of the origin of microblade cultural tradition and supports the Northern China Origin of microblade tradition. This issue not only concerns the problem of origin of early human but also modern human. The evidence is consistent with the theory of “Continuity and Hybridization”. Therefore, the author brings forward a new perspective on situation of SDG culture in communication between the East and the West through the reappearance of “DGT core”, and discusses the dominant and diffusive role played by the small tool industry of North China. Further, the author points out the necessity of establishing concepts of “North China center” and “local-originated, dominance and diffusion of small tool culture in North China”. A hypothesis of “Pre-Silk Road” namely “Lithic Road” is also proposed by the author in the article. Like many Middle and Upper Paleolithic sites in Middle and North Asia, SDG culture is supposed as one example of a vane of indicating the Eastern and the Western intercommunication and diffusion along the road during that time. Meanwhile, some relevant evidence of anthropology has also been well discussed. Finally the driving force of cultural development and continuity compelled by environmental change is very much emphasized in the article as well as evidence presented from both archaeology and anthropology, and are putting in good prospect.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金项目(批准号:40172009);; 国家科学技术部中国-斯洛文尼亚(2001-2002 2003-2004)合作项目;; 中国科学院优秀博士学位论文奖获得者启动专项资金项目资助
【CateGory Index】: K871.1;
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