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《Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica》 1984-04
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MAJOR GROUPS WITHIN THE FAMILY CYPRINIDAE AND THEIR PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS

CHEN XIANG-LIN YUE PEI-QI LIN EEN-DUAN (Institute of Hydrobiology,Academia Sinica, Wuhan)  
Comparative skeletal studies of 92 species belonging to 76 genera of Cyprinidae were made and 25 characters associated with their differentiation were used for comparison with the homologous structures of Characoids, which have been presumed to be plesiomorphous and are Used in this study as criteria for determining the character apomorphous of the group studied. A eladogram is formulated to show the phylogene-tic relationships, and on the basis of these relationships a taxonomic system for this group is proposed.The family Cyprinidae is composed of two series, Leuciscini and Barbini. The series Leueiscini, being comparatively primitive, comprises 6 subfamilies, namely, Danioninae, Leuciscinae, Cultrinae, Xenocyprinae, Gobioninae and Acheilognathinae. The series Barbini is comparatively advanced and contains 4 subiamilies, namely, Tincinae, Barbinae, Cyprinidae and Labeoninae. It is understood that the names of the subfamilies mentioned above are given in the order from primitive to advanced.The series Leueiscini differs from the series Barbini in the construction of the neural complex, the mode of contact between the orbitosphenoid and the parasphenoid, and in the degree of degeneration of the arteria arcus hyoideus as well.In the series Leuciseini, there are two tribes. Danionines and Leuciscines. They are distinct from each other by the peculiarity of the circumorbitals and by the position of the trigemino-facialis foramen. The tribe Danionines has only one subfamily Danioninae. Based upon the features of the pectoral girdle, 2nd-3rd vertebral centra and of the pterotic, the tribe Leuciscines can be split into two sister groups. The first group consists of three subfamilies, namely, Leuciscinae, Cultrinae and Xenocyprinae. The subfamily Leueiscinae is considered to be primitive from the character of bifurcation of the pelvic and from the nature of the first dorsal ray. The subfamilies Cultrinae and Xenocyprinae arise from a common ancestor, but they are separated by the differences in characters such as pharyngeal process, the neural spine of the 4th vertebra and the dorsal rib of the 3rd vertebra. These characters indicate also that the subfamily Xenoeyprinae is more advanced than the subfamily Cultrinae. As to the groups of Gobioninae and Acheilognathinae, the former exhibits general primitive traits, but some characters such as the position of lacrimal and the less extention of myodome point to their specialisation. Acheilognathinae is further more peculiar in its intestinal convolution.The series Barbini is divided into two tribes, Tincanes and Barbines, which differ from each other in the pelvic bifurcation, mode of ossification in pre-ethmoid and in the connection of supra-orbital and suborbital sensory canals. The tribe Tincanes has only one subfamily Tincinae and one genus Tinea. In the tribe Barbines, the pharyngeal process, the forked process of parasphenoid and dorsal spine are commonly found in the subfamilies Cyprininae and Barbinae, and it is indicated that these two subfamilies are close in relationship. The subfamily Labeoninac is supposed to be separated from the common stem group of Barbines and it becomes the most advanced subfamily of the carp fishes. The subfamily Cyprininae is distinguished from the subfamily Barbinae in having a rather strong spine in the anal fin and the transverse processes of the first vertebral centrum are being lost.At the end of this article the geographieal distribution of the family Cyprinidae is also discussed. There are seven distributional regions, namely, North America, East Asia, South Asia, Siberia, West Asia, Africa and Europe. In each region, there is a particular faunal complex of Cyprinids. In Africa, there distribute Danioninae and Barbinae. Tincinae and the primitive genera of Leuciscinae occur in Europe. In Siberia, however, the subfamily Leuciscinae becomes predominant, and so in North America. The fish fauna of Cyprinidae in South Asia is rather similar to that in Afriea while the former region has more numerous genera and more derived forms in Cyprininae
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