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《Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica》 1990-01
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NEW FOSSIL SPECIES OF APOIDEA (INSECTA: HYMENQPTERA)

ZHANG JUN-FENG(Shandong Provincial Museum, Jinan)  
This paper deals with three new fossil bees, belonging separately to the families Bom-bidae, Xylocopidae and Apidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera). All type specimens were collected by the present writer from the Miocene Shanwang Formation lying 22 kilometers east of Linqu county in Shandong province of China and are now conserved in Shandong Provincial Museum.1. Bombus luianus sp. nov. (P1. I, figs. 1, 2; Fig. 1)Description. No, s82771 (holotype). Length of body 12.7mm, width 8.0mm; length of fore-wing 13.8mm, of hind-wing 8.6mm.Head ill-preserved. Thorax stout, hairy and black in color. Hind tibia widening posteriorly, possessing two strong spurs but not elongate, and its outer margin covered with strong coarse bristles. Basitarsus rectangular, flat, truncared at both ends, nearly as wide as distal part of hind tibia; 4th tarsal segment armed with a pair of spur-like bristles distally; inner margin of claw bearing a single tooth at middle. Color of wings brown and wing-veins dark brown. Characters of wing venation as shown in fig. 1. Abdomen black but red-brown in color near apex, consisting of five segments, suboval in shape, a little longer than wide, and distinctly narrower than thorax.Remarks. This new species is closely similar to B. tunicatus Smith, a modern species distributed in China and India, but differs from the latter in that the abdomen is distinctly narrower than thorax, not so massive as is usual for this genus; the spurs, although strong, become shorter; the cross vein Im-cu of fore-wing meets cell 2rm at middle, not near the fork of vein Rs + M; the vein M runs for a short distance beyond cell 3rm, and is much thin; both veins M + CuA and M of hind-wing run in a straight line.Horizon and Locality. Shanwang Formation (Miocene); Shanwang of Linqu County, Shandong Province (36°34'N, 118°46'E).2. Xylocopa diatoma sp. nov. (Pl. Ⅰ, figs. 3, 4; Fig. 2)Description. No: s82772 (holotype). Length of body (excluding promuscis) 30.5mm. thickness 13.5 mm; length of fore-wing 20.5 mm, width 7.8 mm.Head small, nearly circular. Promuscis well developed, triangular, about two-thirds as long as head. Scape of antenna cylindrical, rather elongate, and about two-thirds the length of head. Thorax globular. Basitarsus much longer than, and nearly as wide as tibia, flat, rectangular, and its out margin with dense elongate hairs. Fore-wing narrow, short, and with sharp apex; brown basally but dark brown in color distally and with black brown punctures. Characters of wing venation as shown in fig. 2. Hind-wing ill-preserved. Abdomen massive, suboval, consisting of six segments, and rather thicker than thorax. All hairs on body brown in color.Remarks. The present species is easily separated from all known fossil forms of this genus by the rather large in size. So far as the features of body and wing venation are concerned, Xylocopa diatoma sp. nov. is very closely related to X. rufescens Smith, a living species from Burma, Sri Lanka and Indonesia, but distinguishable from the latter by having the rather elongate scape, the brown hairs on body, the different colors of fore-wing and the more sharp wing apex.Horizon and Locality. Shanwang Formation (Miocene); Shanwang of Linqu County, Shandong Province (36°34'N, 118°46'E).3. Apis longtibia sp. nov. (Pl. Ⅰ, figs. 5, 6; Fig. 3)Description. No. s82773 (holotype). Length of body 14.3mm, width 6.3mm; length of fore-wing 11.7 mm, of hind-wing 8.2 mm.Head ill-preserved, seem to be small, nearly circular in shape. Thorax stout, nearly globular. Hind tibia elongate, widening posteriorly, about twice the length of basitarsus; the latter wider than tibia, flat and rectangular. Wings nearly pale, hyaline, with wing-veins light brown in color. Characters of wing venation as shown in fig. 3. Abdomen massive, oval, black in color.Remarks. This new species resembles extremely A. miocenica Hong, an extinct species discovered also from the Miocene Shanwang Formation, and the division into two species is based on following characters: the abdomen is entirely black in color; the cell 3r of fore-wing m
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