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《Zoological Research》 1984-01
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ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF BIRDS IN BEIJING AND ITS VICINITY DURING SUMMER

Zheng Guangmei (Department of Biology, Beijing Normal University)  
This paper is the second part of our study dealing with the summer birds in Beijing and its vicinity.In the previous paper, we have reported 129 species, belonging to 15 orders and 42 families.The ecological distribution and population density of the different biotopes of those species, and 11 additional, i. e. Pandion haliaetus, Circus c. cyaneus, Chlidonias hybrida swinhoei, Chlidonias leucoptera, Gelochelidon nilotica affinis, Larus crassirostris, Cettia squameiceps,Cisticola juncidis tinnabulans, Paradoxornis webbianus fuluicauda, Aegithalos caudatus vinaceus and Emberiza elegans ticchuristi, are described here. Among these birds, 12 species are dominants and 29 species subdominants. The different biotopes of the dominant species are. mountain coniferous and deciduous mixed forests-Pants major,Carduelis sinica; mountain woodlands and bushes-Emberiza cioides, Emberiza cia, Phoenicurus auro-reus; urban and suburban regions-Passer montanus, Apus apus, Hirundo rustica, Hirundo daurica; open fields-Passer montanus, Apus apus, Hirundo rustica, Hirundo daurica; parks-Passer montanus, Apus apus, Hirundo rustica, Hirundo daurica, Parus major; streams and reservoirs-Aero-ccphalus arundinaus, Sterna albifrons, Chlidonias leucoptera, respectively. The last one was seen in July, its nest has not yet been found, although the adults and young were captured. The substitution for virtical distribution of some ecological related species, e.g. three of Doves, five of Tite, two of Buntings, three of Shrikes, four of Willow Warberi, two of Drongos, two of Rook Thrushes and Blue Whistling Thrush, three of Cuckoos, in the mountain forest has been noted. By means of this substitution, competition may be reduced by ecological diversification in habitat preferences. It is obvious that some drastic changes in the avifauna and population density have taken place since liberation in comparison with pre-liberation, especially the urban region. Four species of Egret have disappeared and the large size birds like Rook, Chinese Magpie, Dove, Board-billed Roller, Black Drongo, Black-naped Oriole and some Falcons etc. are getting rarer and rarer.The main cause of the decrease of birds is the environmental changes, pollution and human interference. Some suggestions are proposed to protect and restore bird resources
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