Full-Text Search:
Home|Journal Papers|About CNKI|User Service|FAQ|Contact Us|中文
《ADVANCE IN EARTH SCIENCES》 1999-06
Add to Favorite Get Latest Update

PROGRESSES AND TRENDS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH

ZHANG Zhiqiang ①② ,SUN Chengquan ②,CHENG Guodong ①,NIU Wenyuan ③ (①State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology, CAS,Lanzhou,730000,China) (②Lanzhou Information Center for Resources  
Sustainable development thought has become the common idea of international community and every country, sustainable development way has become the best development model pursued by every country of the world. Sustainable development research is a transcentury integrated field of multidisciplines. The forming process of sustainable development thinking is retrospected in this paper. Based on the introduction to the concept and viewpoints of sustainable development at home and abroad, the profound connotation of sustainable development thought is analysed. The paper also introduces the theoretical framework of sustainable development and the basic theories of regional sustainable development, sums up the major discipline directions and their characteristics, main contents and their progresses in sustainable development research.
【Fund】: 国家科技部“九五”重点科技攻关专题!(编号:96-920-24-06);;中国科学院1998 年“西部之光”项目!(编号:96-9?
【CateGory Index】: X22
Download(CAJ format) Download(PDF format)
CAJViewer7.0 supports all the CNKI file formats; AdobeReader only supports the PDF format.
【References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 CHENG Zhong-lin et al (Southwestern University,Chongqing 400715);Man-Land System and Regional Sustainable Development[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-15
2 LIU Yong et al (College of Environmental Science and Engineering,Tianjin University,Tianjin 300072);Analysis on Ecological Footprints of Tianjin in 2003[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-07
3 XIONG Chun-mei et al (School of Earth Science and Environmental Engineering,Southwest Jiaotong University,Chengdu,Sichuan 610031);Research of Sustainable Development in Mianyang City Based on Ecological Footprint Model[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2011-36
4 GAO Lifeng(Department of Urban and Rural Development & Management Engineering,Shangluo University,Shangluo 726000,Shaanxi,China);Ecological Safety Assessment of Tianjin City Based on Ecological Tension Index[J];Journal of Ankang University;2011-02
5 MENG Wei-qing,MA Chun,JU Mei-ting,LI Hong-yuan,FENG Hai-yun(College of Environmental Science and Engineering,Nankai University,Tianjin 300071,China);Dynamic calculation and analysis of eco-footprints of Tianjin City in the past two decades[J];Journal of Safety and Environment;2008-02
6 ZHANG Zhi\|qiang\+\{1, 2\},\ CHENG Guo\|dong\+2,\ XU Zhong\|min\+2 (1. Scientific Information Center for Resources and Environment, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China; 2. State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, CAREERI, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000;Review of Indicators and Methodologies for Measuring Sustainable Development and Their Applications[J];Journal of Glaciolgy and Geocryology;2002-04
7 SHI Hui\|chun\+\{1, 2\},\ CHENG Guo\|dong\+2,\ XU Zhong\|min\+2,\ ZHANG Zhi\|qiang\+2,\ ZHANG Bo\+\{1, 2\} (1. Geography and Environment Science Academy, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou Gansu 730070, China; 2. State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil En;Learning Organization and Construction of Eco-economy Research Group[J];Journal of Glaciolgy and Geocryology;2002-04
8 WANG Guo-gang1,2,YANG De-gang1,QIAO Xu-ning3,YANG Li1,2,TANG Hong1,2(1.Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography,Chinese Acadedy of Sciences,rümqi Xinjiang830011,China;2.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing100049,China;3.School of Surveying& Land Information Engineering,Henan Polytechnic University,Jiaozuo Henan454000,China);Variations of Ecological and Economic Sustainable Development Capacities in Xinjiang Region Based on Ecological Footprint Model[J];Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology;2009-05
9 Jiang Haifeng Zhang Jintun(College of Life Sciences,Beijing Normal University,100875,Beijing,China);ASSESSMENT OF ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FOR YUNNAN PROVINCE[J];Journal of Beijing Normal University(Natural Science);2006-05
10 XIONG Ying\+\{1,2\},WANG Ke-lin\+1,GUO Xian\+3,XIE Chun-hua\+1 (1.The Institute of Subtropical Agriculture,The Chinese Academy of Sciences,Changsha 410125,China;2.Department of Architectare,Changsha University of Science and Technology,Changsha 410076,China;3.Changsha No 19 Middle School, Changsha 410015,China);APPLICATION OF ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS METHOD IN MEASURING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT——WITH HUNAN PROVINCE AS AN EXAMPLE[J];Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin;2004-04
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 2 Hits
1 ;Narration about the research tendency of ecological environment early warning’theory and key technologies[A];[C];2009
2 MA Yijuan;XUE Guozheng;SU Zhizhu;Instiute of Historical Geography and Environmental Change,Taiyuan Normal College;Institute of Loess Plateau,Shanxi University;Chinese Research and Development Centre on Combating desertification,Chinese Academy of Forestry;;The Calculation and Analysis of Ecological Footprints of Shanxi Province in 2002[A];[C];2006
【Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 6 Hits
1 Qin Yaochen Chen Shimin Wang Xi Lu Xiangqian Li Zhigang (Dept. of Geography, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001);REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THEORIES AND THEIR APPLICATION[J];PROGRESS IN GEOGRAPHY;1997-01
2 Wang Qiao (Institute of Remote Sensing Application, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100101)Mao Feng (Institute of Geography, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100101);SOME DISCUSSIONS ON RESEARCH OF REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS[J];Scientia Geographica Sinica;1998-06
3 Huang Bingwei(Institute of Geography. Chinese Academy of Sciences and the State Planning Commission of P.R.China.Beijing 100101);ON EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCEAND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (Ⅰ)[J];Acta Geographica Sinica;1996-04
4 $$$$;“Integration” Is a New Idea in the Research of Earth Science[J];SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY REVIEW;1995-07
5 Ma Shijun Wang Rusong(Research Center of Ecology, Academia Sinica);THE SOCIAL-ECONOMIC-NATURAL COMPLEX ECOSYSTEM[J];Acta Ecologica Sinica;1984-01
6 Zhang Zhi-qiangAssociate Professor, Information Research Drvision, Lanzhou Center ofDocumentation and Information of Chinese Academy of Sciences.Lanzhou, Gansu 730000;New Developmental Trends of Earth Science[J];Nature Magazine;1996-03
【Co-citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 LUO Kun-yan Xingyi Normal University for Nationalities,Xingyi 562400,China;Research on Functional Characteristics of Karst Eco-economic Compound System in Guizhou Province[J];亚洲农业研究(英文版);2011-03
2 Shen Yongming(Department of Geography,Nanjing Xiaozhuang College,Nanjing,Jiangsu 210017);The Function of Making Use of the Ocean Resource in Chinese Sustainable Development[J];Anhui Agricultural Science Bulletin;2007-09
3 Qin Xiaolin Zhang Qingguo Yang Shuyun (Anhui Agricultural University,Hefei,Anhui,230036,China);Complexities in Ecosystem and Their Research Methodologies[J];Anhui Agricultural Science Bulletin;2007-19
4 Deng Jinghu et al.(Jiangxi Provincial Coal Geology Bureau of Surveying and Mapping Unit,Nanchang 330001,China);Study on Comprehensive Evaluation of Land Remediation Projects by Set Pair Analysis[J];Anhui Agricultural Science Bulletin;2011-17
5 LU Xiao- biao1,2 (Graduate School, Wuhan University of Technology,Wuhan 430000, China; College of Arts,Anhui Agricultural University,Hefei 230036,China);Chinese Traditional Architecture and Eco-Culture[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural University(Social Science Edition);2009-01
6 WANG Xiao-hui et al (School of Nature Resource and Environmental Engineering,Hefei University of Technology,Hefei,Anhui 230009);Theory of Ecological Construction and its Practice in Anhui Province[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-11
7 ZHANG Yi-chuan et al (College of Landscape Architecture,Henan Institute of Science and Technology,Xinxiang,Henan 453003);Landscape Design of the Xinjian Residential District[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-12
8 QIAO Li-fang et al (College of Landscape Architecture,Henan Institute of Science and Technology,Xinxiang,Henan 453003);Study on the Construction of Dreamful Residential Environment in Modern City[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-12
9 QIAO Li-fang et al (College of Landscape Architecture,Henan Institute of Science and Technology,Xinxiang,Henan 453003);Countermeasures of the Abandoned Land Management in Xinxiang[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-15
10 JIA Liang-qing et al (Anhui Academy of Environmental Sciences,Hefei,Anhui 230061);Study on the Theory and Practice of Ecological Region Development Planning[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-19
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Wang Rusong (Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences,Academia Sinica,Beijing 100080);HUMAN ECOLOGICAL IDEA AND ITS DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA[A];[C];1991
2 Sheng Chengfa (Institute of Zoology,Academia Sinica,Beijing 100080);DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTION IN ECOLOGY[A];[C];1991
3 Wang Zhaoqiang (Natural Dialectics Sociaty of China,Beijing 100081);ECOLOGICAL ORDER——the Principal and Subordinate Law[A];[C];1991
4 Ouyang Zhiyun Wang Rusong CResearch Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080);WATER ECOLOGIICAL PROCESS ANALYSIS IN SOCI-ALECONOMIC-NATURAL COMPLEX ECOSYSTEM[A];[C];1991
5 Zhao Qingtao Wang Rusong (Dept.of System Ecology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080);STRATEGY RESEARCH ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN INDUSTRY[A];[C];1991
6 Lu Li (Dept.of Systems Ecology,RCEES,Academia Sinica,Beijing 100080);INFORMATION SELECTION IN THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM REGULATION[A];[C];1991
7 Hu Dan Wang Rusong (Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences,Academia Sinica,Beijing 100080);PROBE INTO THE ECOLOGICAL WAY FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE LIVING QUALITY OF URBAN[A];[C];1991
8 GAO Wangsheng Regional Farming Research Central,China Agricultural University,Beijing 100094,China;Analyses on Agricultural Systematic Productivity in Ecotone Between Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in Northern China[A];[C];2005
9 ;Narration about the research tendency of ecological environment early warning’theory and key technologies[A];[C];2009
10 LIU Xiaoli(The Administration Centre of Urban-Rural Planning Ministry of House & Urban-Rural Development of China,Beijing 100835,China);Study on the Index System of Ecological City Planning Based on the Carrying Capacity of Resources and Environment[A];[C];2010
【Co-references】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 BAO Wen* Business School, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225, China;Eco-taxes and Sustainable Utilization of Grassland Resources[J];畜牧与饲料科学(英文版);2009-03
2 CHEN Yun 1, WANG Jia-quan 1, HU Xian-guo 2(1.Department of Resourses and Environmental Engineering, Hefei Universituy of Tochonology, Hefei, 230009; 2.Institute of Tribology, Hefei Universituy of Tochonology, Hefei, 230009, China);LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION[J];Journal of Anhui Institute of Architecture;2004-05
3 PAN Fa-kang(School of Environment and Energy Engineering,Anhui University of Architecture,Hefei 230601,China);The environment risk analysis of tailings pond in lron mine[J];Journal of Anhui Institute of Architecture & Industry(Natural Science);2009-06
4 Tian Hongxi et al(Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute,Jingdezhen 333000,China);The Practice of Color in Architectural Design[J];Anhui Architecture;2009-06
5 HUANG Yi -guang 1 ,PANG You -lin 2 (1.Dept.of Agric.Economics,Shandong Agric.Management Cadre College,Jinan,250100China;2.College of Land Management,Nanjing Agricultural University,Nanjing,210095China);SustainableLand Use and Its Realization[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural University;2001-04
6 Li Guolian et al (Environmental and Chemical Engineering School, Nanchang University, Nanchang,Jiangxi 330029);Agricultural Problem and Eco-agriculture in China[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2003-03
7 ZHENG Xiu-juan (College of Tourism and Environment of Shanxi Normal University, Xian, Shanxi 710062);Exploration of Eco-agriculture Tourism in Yanan City[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2005-01
8 LIU Chang-hai et al (The Key Laboratory for Forestry Culture and Conservation of Ministry of Education,Beijing Forestry University,Beijing 100083);Sustainable Development of Ecological Agriculture in Northern Shaanxi Loess Plateau[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-17
9 SHAO Jin-hua et al (College of Geography and Resource Management,Ludong University,Yantai,Shandong 264025);Evaluation of the Carrying Capacity of Regional Water Resource with Method of the Main Component Analysis[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-19
10 DU Chao et al(School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences,Nanjing University,Nanjing,Jiangsu 210093);Research on the Mechanism of Urban Land Reservation Based on Systematic Conception[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-24
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 2 Hits
1 ;The Efficient Eco-agriculture and Sustainable Development of the Three Gorges[A];[C];2005
2 LIU Guo-bin, YANG Qin-ke, ZHENG Fen-li (Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100);Watershed Integrated Counstruction and Ecosystem Construction in Loess Plateau[A];[C];2003
【Secondary References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 GUAN Jin-qiao* Department of Geography,Huaiyin Teachers College,Huaian 223001,China;Dynamic Ecological Footprint in Jiangxi Province of China[J];亚洲农业研究(英文版);2009-03
2 ZHENG De-ben1,ZHAO Guan-wei2 1.Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Guangzhou 510640,China;2.School of Geographical Science,Guangzhou University,Guangzhou 510006,China;Difference between Supply and Demand of Land Consumption Function in Huadu District,Guangzhou City,China[J];亚洲农业研究(英文版);2009-10
3 JIANG Xiao-ping1,2* 1.Huazhong University of Science and Technology,Wuhan 430074,China 2.Zhongzhou University,Zhengzhou 430074,China;Evaluation of Ecological Carrying Capacity of Henan Province under the Sustainable Development[J];亚洲农业研究(英文版);2010-06
4 CHEN Ji-bing,LI Yu-ping Department of Geography,Xingtai University,Xingtai 054001,China;Dynamic Change of Ecological Footprint in Xingtai City in the Years 2003-2009[J];亚洲农业研究(英文版);2011-02
5 DU Hui-ying1, DONG Hong-lin1, JIN Bo2 1. Integrated Agricultural Research Center of Ningxia Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan 750002, China; 2. Cultural Heritage Management Office of Pingluo County of Ningxia Hui Nationality Autonomous Region, Pingluo 753400, China;A Vertical and Horizontal Comparison of Sustainable Development Status in Western China from the Perspective of Ecological Footprint[J];亚洲农业研究(英文版);2011-08
6 ZHI Ying-biao1,WANG Zai-lan2,DENG Xian-de3,HAN Xue1,ZHANG Ji-mao4,LI Jing-min1,YANG Shu-bao4(1.School of Life Science,Anhui Key Laboratory of Eco-engineering and Biotechnology,Anhui University,Hefei 230039,China;2.School of Environment and Natural Resources,Renmin University of China,Beijing 100872,China;3.Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering,Beijing 100125;4.Laizhou Forestry Experimental Farm of Fujian Province,Laizhou 353004,China);Parallel analysis on earth's ecological deficit and the regional ecological capacity——a case study for Anhui Province[J];Journal of Anhui University(Natural Sciences Edition);2010-01
7 Cao Jin et al.(College of Economy and Management Hexi University,Zhangye 734000,China);Study on Sustainable Development of oasis Agriculture Cities in Arid Areas of Northwest China Based on Analyzing Ecological Footprints ——A Case Study in Zhangye City[J];Anhui Agricultural Science Bulletin;2011-07
8 LIU Bin et al(Hebei Agricultural University,Baoding,Hebei 071001);Quantitative Analysis of Sustainable Development of Economy in China[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-02
9 GONG Song et al(College of Land Resources and Environment,JAU,Nanchang,Jiangxi 330045);Analysis of Ecological Footprint Change of Jiangxi[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-05
10 CHENG Chun-wang et al(Department of Tourism,Nanjing Normal University,Nanjing,Jiangsu 210097);Construction of the Supervision Index of Tourism Ecological Environment Based on Ecological Footprint Theory[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-06
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Wu Kaiya,Hu Shuheng,Sun Shiqun (School of Resources Science & Environmental Engineering,University of Technology,Hefei,230009,China);Calculation and Analysis of Ecological Footprint of Chaohu Basin[A];[C];2004
2 Zhang Xiaoping~1 Shao Jianwen~1 Hong Changshun~2 Wang Hongbin~2 Lie Niuwang~1 (1.College of Life Science,Anhui Normal University,Wuhu 241000; 2.The Bureau of Environment protection of Huangshang City,Tungxi 245000);Ecological footprint calculation and development capacity analysis of Huangshang City in 2003[A];[C];2004
3 CHEN Lei Business School,Linyi Normal University,Linyi 276005,China;Time Series Analysis of Ecological Footprint of Linyi City[A];[C];2010
4 LI Xin~(1,*),WANG Hai-bin~(1,2),CHEN Chao-zhen~1,YE Yuan-lei~1 (1.School of Natural Resource and Environmental Engineering,Mianyang Normal University,Mianyang 621000; 2.School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Mianyang Normal University,Mianyang 621000);Dynamic Analysis of Ecological Footprint and Capacity of Mianyang City[A];[C];2011
5 HUANG Feifei,WANG Yufeng,CHANG Maosheng (Anyang Institute of Urban Planning & Design,Anyang,455000);THE STUDY ON MAKING ECOLOGICAL CITY BASED ON ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT MODEL IN NEIHUANG[A];[C];2011
6 Jia Liuqiang Peng Daiming;Study on the Urban Spatial Structure of Sichuan Province in the View of Major Functional Zones[A];[C];2011
7 ;Narration about the research tendency of ecological environment early warning’theory and key technologies[A];[C];2009
8 HUANG yanxian,ZHU liqun,BIAN xin-min (Institute of Regional Agriculture,NanJing Agriculture University,NanJing 210095,China );The Productive Ecological Footprint Analysis and Evaluation of the Main Crops in JIANGSU Province[A];[C];2009
9 Cui Shihua Chen Youlin Yang Yang (School of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 School of Transportation, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650224 );Study On Measure the Impact of Urban Traffic Activities On Nature[A];[C];2005
10 YU Xin-lian (School of management,Inner Mongolia University of Technology Hohhot 010062);The Comprehensive Evaluation of Sustainable Development of Xinjiang[A];[C];2009
【Secondary Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Huang Bingwei(Institute of Geography. Chinese Academy of Sciences and the State Planning Commission of P.R.China.Beijing 100101);ON EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCEAND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (Ⅰ)[J];Acta Geographica Sinica;1996-04
2 Hao Xiaohui(Institute of National and Regional Planning,State Planning Commission)Subject terms:Resources,Environment,Sustainable Development,Policies;ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT—WITH METHODOLOGIES POLIES AND MEASURES[J];Geographical Research;1994-04
3 Zhang Zliiqiang(Institute of Geography,Chinese Academy of Seiences.Beijing 100101)Abstact Population,Resource,Environment and Devdopment(PRED)are four foci of the human─environment relationship. There are coinplex relationships and feedback am;THE METHOD FOR REGIONAL PRED SYSTEM-ANALYSIS AND DECISION MAKING[J];Geographical Research;1995-04
4 Yang Qinye; Zhen Du(Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101);REVIEWS ON LAND SYSTEM SCINECE[J];GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH;1996-04
5 Ye Duzheng and Fu Congbin(Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080);Major Issues of Global Change Sciences[J];Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences;1994-04
6 Li Xixian (Bureau of Science & Technology Policy, Chinese Academy of Sciences);EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE——THE GLOBAL FRONT OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY INITIATIVES[J];Advance in Earth Sciences;1991-01
7 Meng Xianguo (China University of Geosciences, Wuhan,430074);A PRELIMINARY VIEW ON POSITION AND ACTION OF NONLINEAR SCIENCES IN MATHEMATICAL GEOLOGY[J];Advance in Earth Sciences;1993-01
8 Yi Chuixiang(Department of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Beijing Normal University ,Beijing 100875);APPROACH ON APPLYING THE NONLINEAR THEORIES TO FORMULATE A SYNTHETICAL THEORY SYSTEM OF ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY[J];ADVENCE IN EARTH SCIENCES;1995-02
9 Shen Renxing,Shangguan Xingjian,Wang Mingxing,Wang Yuesi, Zhang Wen(Institute of Atmospheric Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100029)Lu Juxiang,Xu Binxiong,Fu Guifeng,Li Mingshan,Ling Ziyu(South China Institute for Environmental Sciences,NEPA,G;METHANE EMISSION FROM RICE FIELDS IN GUANGZHOU REGION AND THE SPATIAL VARIATION OF METHANE EMISSION IN CHINA[J];ADVENCE IN EARTH SCIENCES;1995-04
10 Wang Jinghua(Agrometeorology Institute,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing 100081);GLOBAL CHANGE IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND ITS ADAPTATION Lin Erda[J];ADVENCE IN EARTH SCIENCES;1995-06
©2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Knowledge Network Technology Co., Ltd.(Beijing)(TTKN) All rights reserved