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《Earth Science Frontiers》 2003-S1
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A DISCUSSION ON RELATED ISSUES OF PHYSICAL PROCESS OF FAULTING AND STRONG EARTHQUAKE BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

MA Sheng-li, LIU Li-qiang, MA Jin, BA Jing, WANG Kai-ying, HU Xiao-yan (Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics, Institute of Geology, China Seismological Bureau, Beijing 100029, China)  
This paper discusses the related issues of physical process of faulting and strong earthquake based on a series of experimental results, including the frictional sliding of faults, the deformation of faults containing asperities, the tearing propagation of faults, and the deformation of intersecting faults, and in combination with previous works. The analysis indicates that a strong earthquake is caused by the slip of entire fault, which brings about the rapid release of elastic strain in the rock blocks; therefore, a fault (or a segment of fault) with considerable scale, with continuous and simple geometry, and with homogeneous media in an active region of tectonics is the necessary condition for occurrence of a strong earthquake. For occurrence of a strong earthquake during tearing upward of a newborn fault in deep depth (blind fault), a “weak” layer is needed to play a role of “uncoupling” for the slip of entire fault. The preparation and nucleation of a strong earthquake involve fracturing of asperities on the fault plane, and the foreshock activity, the dynamic rupture process and the precursors of the strong earthquake depend on the scale, the strength and the number of asperities. The movement of a fault block is characterized by the alternate slips along its boundary faults; so strong earthquakes occur alternately in the boundary faults of the block.
【Fund】: 国家重点基础研究发展规划项目 (G19980 40 70 4)
【CateGory Index】: P315.2
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