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《Earth Science Frontiers》 2006-04
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Contributions of strike-slip faulting to exhumation of ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks and the Cretaceous uplift of the northern Qinghai-Tibet plateau

YANG Jing-sui, LI Hai-bingKey Laboratory for Continental Dynamics of MLR, Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037,China  
Three ultrahigh pressure metamorphic (UHPM) belts, i.e., the north Qaidam, the south Altun, and the high Himalaya UHPM belts, have been discovered in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, which offer a unique opportunity to investigate the exhumation of deeply subducted UHPM rocks. The north Qaidam UHPM belt is located on the southeastern side of the Altyn Tagh strike slip fault and was formed by the collision between the Qaidam-East Kunlun terrane on the south and the Qilian-Altun micro-terrane and the Alax-Dunhuang terrane on the north. This belt is about 350 km long and consists of eclogite, garnet peridotite and coesite-bearing gneissic rocks. The eclogites formed at between 500 and 440 Ma with a peak UHPM age of 440 Ma. The south Altun UHPM belt is located on the northwestern side of the Altyn Tagh strike slip fault, and contains eclogites and garnet peridotites of ca. 500 Ma. The south Altun belt is believed to be the western extension of the north Qaidam UHPM belt, but now offset for about 400 km by the Altyn Tagh fault. The Altyn Tagh fault is a major sinistral strike slip fault, which extends to depths of greater than 200 km (Wittinger et al., 1998) and has been active at least since 240-220 Ma (Li Haibing et al., 2001). The Altyn Tagh fault has been recognized as a transpressional fault, and responsible for the uplift of the Qilian mountains and the Altun mountains that border it. We propose that the Altyn Tagh fault is probably responsible for the final exhumation of the UHPM rocks in both north Qaidam and south Altun, a geometric expression perhaps being that the Altyn Tagh fault had a scissor-like kinematic history.The high Himalaya UHPM belt is distributed along the Pakistan and Indian Himalayas, where coesite and diamond have been discovered in eclogites (O'Brien et al., 2001; Sachan et al., 2001;Mukherjee et. al., 2005). Coesite-bearing zircons in the eclogite gave a 46 Ma peak UHPM age (Kaneko et al., 2003), suggesting that the UHPM rocks in the high Himalaya formed soon after the closure of the Neo-Tethys ocean and were rapidly exhumed thereafter. The Karakorum dextral strike-slip fault is located NE of the UHPM rocks. Its faulting and associated deformation occurred between 6.88-8.75 Ma, with an offset of about 135 km (Zhou Yong et al., 2001). We propose that this fault may have controlled the exhumation and exposure of the UHPM rocks in the high Himalayas. The Tanlu sinistral strike-slip fault in eastern China, which offsets the Dabie and Sulu UHPM belts for about 500 km, may provide another good example for the exhumation of UHPM rock along the two sides of the fault. Based on these three examples, we propose that strike-slip faulting may have played an important role in the exhumation of UHPM rocks.The uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau has been attributed to the Cenozoic collision between the India plate and the Eurasia continent. Based on field relationships concerning plateau uplift, volcanic and faulting activities, and basin sedimentation records, we propose that the formation of the plateau occurred in response to two episodes of plate subduction and collision. The first occurred in the Cretaceous due to the closure of the Mid-Tethys Bangong-Nujiang ocean by plate subduction. The northern plateau began to be uplifted at that time because of resistance from the north of the Tarim and North China blocks, and also from the east due to the westward subduction of the Pacific plate under the South China block. The second episode occurred in the Cenozoic as a result of the closure of the Neo-Tethys Yarlung Zangbo ocean, and was responsible for the uplift of the entire plateau. These two episodes may explain why the northern plateau has a higher average elevation (5 000 m) than the southern plateau (4 000 m in average).
【Fund】: 中国地质调查局项目(200413000031 200313000058);; 国家重点基础研究专项(2001CB711001)
【CateGory Index】: P542
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