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Metallogeny by trans-magmatic fluids—theoretical analysis and field evidence

Luo Zhaohua1, Mo Xuanxue1, Lu Xinxiang2, Chen Bihe1, Ke Shan1, Hou Zengqian3, Jiang Wan41.State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China2.Scientific Academy of Land and Resources of Henan, Zhengzhou 450003, China3.Institute of Mineral Resources, CAGS, Beijing 100037, China4.Institute of Geomechanics, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China  
This paper is aimed at introducing and developing the principle of Metallogenic Theory through Trans-magmatic Fluids (MTTF) proposed by the Russian Kozhinskii's school. Some fundamental problems of metallogeny are discussed on geodynamic bases. In this theory, the trans-magmatic fluid is interpreted as a moving fluid passing through magma which is not yet consolidated. The intensive wallrock alteration of most of hydrothermal ore systems suggests that large scale fluid flow accompanies metallogenesis. However, geological observations and experiments imply a very limited solubility of fluids in magmas. In addition, the close relationship between small igneous bodies and large ore systems together with the difficulty of fluids that from the wallrocks might enter a magmatic body, which is under high pressure and temperature, need also to be considered. Those ore-bearing fluids that originate from a deep fluid system, are independent of magmas. Experiments show rapid increases of the solubility of ore-forming elements or their compounds in hydrothermal fluids. Therefore, the essential prerequisites for mineralization are (1) large volumes of deep ore-bearing fluids with high concentration of metals, and (2) the large amounts of metal accumulation depend on the rapid ascent of the deep ore-bearing fluid. Magmas are the favorable medium for the ascending fluids, because these magmas provide conditions that prevent re-equilibrium between the fluid and the wallrocks at different deep levels. The fluids in turn, may provide the driving force for the rapid ascent of magmas. Therefore, the two systems act together to account for the close relationship between magmatism and metallogeny. According to this theory, the scale and location of an ore-forming process are decided by (1) the volumetric ratio of the magma and the fluid systems, (2) the ascending rate of the ore-bearing fluid, (3) the boundary conditions for metal accumulation and (4) the segregation of the fluid from the magma. The field investigations of copper-bearing Melanocratic Macrogranular Enclaves (MME) in the Qushui massif, Gangdise belt are very helpful for understanding of source, transport and precipitation of ore-forming materials. In this example, it can be seen that fluid-rich MMEs is the source of the ore-forming element copper. Copper is transported out from MMEs by the fluid, following dispersal in the granitic magma. The copper-bearing fluid is then transferred through the magma and induced to deposit mineralization elsewhere. These processes have been noted when comparing the metallogenic features in both MME in the Qushui massif and the porphyry copper deposits in Yulong, eastern Tibet,. It is obvious that MTTF is a very important theory for metallogeny of endogenic deposits. Using this theory, many paradoxes in metallogenesis can be interpreted in easier manner.
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