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《EARTH SCIENCE FRONTIERS》 1999-02
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LARGE ORE DEPOSITS AND METALLOGENIC DISTRICTS AT THE EDGE OF CHAOS

Yu Chongwen(China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083)  
Combining the science of complexity with ore geology, th e author put forward a new theory of metallogenesis “Complexity and Self Organized Criticality of Metallogenic Dynamic Systems”, and studied ore genesis and regularity of ore formation of four metallogenic districts around the Yangtze craton with this theory. It was found that “Large ore deposits and metallogenic districts are at the edge of chaos”. After giving a brief account of the outline of the theory of “Complexity and Self Organized Criticality of Metallogenic Dynamic Systems” and the basic concepts of “noise”, “chaos” and “the edge of chaos”, the author advances four determinative criteria of the edge of chaos for geological and ore forming systems. They are: Ⅰ. Evidences for self organized criticality (SOC) power law spatio temporal distribution of field quantities of generalized geological (geological, geophysical, geochemical) fields (temperature, flow velocity, concentration, pressure fields, etc.) and the essential attributes of SOC (1) Long range spatio temporal correlation and connectivity, and spatio temporal fractal structures; (2) dynamics of avalanches; (3) dynamic mechanisms of “cellular automata”; (4) SOC emerges at the edge of chaos, and possesses the maximum complexity, evolvability and creativity or innovation; Ⅱ Evolution of geological and ore forming processes toward temporal chaos, and evolution of geological and ore forming systems toward spatio temporal chaos; Ⅲ Magma and hydrothermal “solitons”, “solitary waves” and “coherent structures” as well as other weakly chaotic “quasi regular structures”; Ⅳ Participation of supercritical geofluids in geological and ore forming processes. The author raises furthermore three fundamental theories for “Complexity and Self Organized Criticality of Metallogenic Dynamic Systems”: (1) Non linear dynamics of geological and ore forming processes application of the theory of non linear dynamics for studying the dynamic mechanisms of the genesis of ore deposits and metallogenic districts; (2) Complexity of the coupled system of “geological and ore forming processes and spatio temporal structures” application of theories of spatio temporal fractality, spatio temporal chaos and weakly chaotic quasi regular structures for studying regularity of spatial distribution and temporal evolution of ore forming systems; (3) Mechanisms of emergence of SOC (edge of chaos) of geological and ore forming systems application of the theory of “transient chaos” for studying the edge of chaos, and application of the determinative criteria for the edge of chaos for studying spatio temporal localization of ore deposits and metallogenic districts. The author expounds the proposition of “Large ore deposits and metallogenic districts at the edge of chaos” by applying the three fundamental theories and combining practical data of ore geology of the four metallogenic districts around the Yangtze craton with the determinative criteria for the edge of chaos. The paper ends in dynamic mechanisms of the formation of large ore deposits and metallogenic districts.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金
【CateGory Index】: P612
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