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《Chinese Journal of Geology》 1982-03
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THE TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION PATTERN AND THE UTILIZATION OF GEOTHERMAL WATER AT NIUTUOZHEN BASEMENT PROTRUSION OF CENTRAL HEBEI PROVINCE

Chen Moxiang,Huang Geshan,Zhang Wenren,Zheng Rongyan (Institute of Geology,Academia Sinica,Beijing)Liu Bingyi (Headquarters of Water Conservancy and Electric Power,North China Oil Field,Renqiu)  
In this paper a review of the temperature distribution pattern and the geother-mal water occurrences is given for the area studied on the basis of measurements of stable temperature in 24 deep drill holes,11 artesian wells,and analysis of temperature data on oil-bearing layers in 65 oil producing wells and prospecting wells.The temperature distribution pattern in this region is dominated by its marked tectonic framework-two subsidences with a basement,protrusion in between.The similarity of two subsidences and the difference between subsidences and protrusion can equally be noted in the light of mean thermal gradient,temperature and heat flow values in the sedimentary cover.The geothermal gradient in the major part of the Niutuozhen protrusion is 5-7℃/100 m or more;temperature at a depth of 1000 M is 60-80℃;terrestrial heat flow is 1.7-2.5 HFU.Meanwhile,in Langfoung-Guan subsidence,gradient is 2.1-3.0℃/100M,temperature at 1000 M is 35--40℃.Whereas in the Baxian subsidence the corresponding values are:G=2.5-3.3℃/100M,G=2.75℃/100M,T1000M=39-43℃.The estimated heat flow in both subsidences are all about 1.0 HFU.A comparison of the geothermal regime of basement subsidence with protrusion indicates that a marked geothermal anomaly occurs in the Niutuozhen protrusion. The Niutuozhen Geothermal Field can be described as a low-temperature thermal water occurrence with a two-layer structure.A geothermal reservoir of Sinian and lower Palaeozoic carbonates is overlain by a sediment cover of Tertiary clastic rocks.Thermal water from carbonates has valuable geothermal potential in this region.Its prominent features are:1) shallow depth of occurrence with elevated temperatures.Usually,a 800-1100M deep well in the anomaly area yields a productive water flow of temperature 60-80℃.2) relatively high artesian flow rate.The single well artesian flow rate is as high as about 400-1500M3/day with a well head pressure of 0.5-3.8 atms.3) The water has high quality and the salinity is about 1-2.5 g/1 with pH=7.5-8.2.It belongs to Cl-HCO3-Na type or Cl-Na type with neutral to slightly alkline.In view of all available data and the results of mathematical modeling of the geo-temperature field,the regional tectonic farmework of an alternative emplacement of deep subsidences with uplifted basement protrusion,adequate combination of high thermore-sistivity sediment cover and high thermoconductivity basement are the main favorable factors for geothermal anomaly formed in the Nitnozhen Protrusion.Thermal water upwelling along the open fractures,making an additional contribution to heat transfer along with the conductive portion,gives rise to a even more intensive anomaly in some locations within me geothoermal field.The geothermal anomaly area with a thermal gradient of 4℃/100M and heat flow value of 1.5 HFU accounts to 660 square kilometers in the Niutuozhen Protrusion,including the Rongcheng Protrusion.The advantageous thermal water extraction conditions favor a prosperous direct use of the thermal water resources for spaceheating and greenhouse building in agriculture.
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