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Zhou Kunshu (Institute of Geology, Academia Sinica, Beijing)  
There is a clear succession of the Quaternary vegetation in North China by the influences of the climate in the glacial and interglacial stages. According to the succession of paleo-vegetation, the Quaternary Period in the region can be divided into a number of warm and cool periods. The cool periods can be named the Nangou cool period in the early Early-Pleistocene, the Beijing cool period in the late Late-Pleistocene, and so on. The warm periods can be named the Zhangjiapo warm period in the early Middle-Pleistocene, the Zhoukoudi-an warm period in the middle Late-Pleistocene, the Liaonan warm period in Holocene, and so on.We have discovered some alternative characteristics in the evolution of paleovegetation of cool period from coniferous forests of Abies, Picea, Pinus to steppe-type vegetation of Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae and kack to coniferous forests of Pinus, Picea and Abies. Coniferous forests of Abies, Picea distributed over hills and piedmonts.The average annual temperature of the Nangou cool period was about 4癈 or much lower than that of the present, the average annual temperature of Beijing cool period was about 7.5癈 or much lower than that of the present. The lower temperature mentioned might play an important role in mountain glacial and periglacial appearance.
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