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《Geological Review》 1983-04
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LIQUID SEGREGATION—ONE OF THE MAIN MODES OF DIFFERENTIATION OF THE NANLING GRANITE

Wang Liankui, Zhu Weifang and Zhang Shaoli (Gtuyang Institute of Geochemtstry, Academta Simca)  
Through extensive studies of granite geology in six provinces of south China, some evidence of liquid segregation of granites, particularly those at the top or edges of the Yanshanian granite mass, has been noted, such as banded structure, flow structure, "whirl" structure, oriented elliptic wolframite "pockets", mica-rich rounded schlierens and vertical compositional zoning of small granite masses. This kind of granite is characterized by high contents of SiO_2, K_2O and, particularly, volatile components such as F and Li which are able to reduce the initial melting temperature of granites. A comparison of our experimental data and those from other countries indicates the following characteristics of the granite system. 1. The addition of NaF, KF and F (HF) to granites leads to the appearance of an immiscible field above the liquidus. This field broadens with decreasing temperature, thus giving rise to immiscible droplets. 2. The addition of Li and F reduces the solidus temperature and thus the differentiation process prolongs, which provides favourable conditions for complete differentiation. 3. The addition of different salts results in different sequences of crystallization, which Ieads totheformation of bands of different granites and different mineral assemblages. 4. In the presence of F, the solibility of H_2O in granite melts increases by as much as 10%,thus providing favourable conditions for post-magmatic hydrothermal activity. All these characteristics determine that the low crystallization temperature, low viscosity and high water content are characteristic ofthelate-stage magma; so the magma is prone to complete magmatic differentiation during its emplacement. The differentiation includes liquid segregation in the upper part of a granite mass and crystallization at depth. (1)In the upper part of a granite mass, the magma is highly enriched in Li, F (2—3%), H_2O (9%), Nb, Ta, W, Sn, etc., forming a mixed field of low temperature magma (567℃) and mineralizing fluids. The immiscible field broadens with decreasing temperature. As a result, the fluoride-bearing molten fraction separates out as immiscible drops from the homogeneous magma, and thus liquid segregation begins. These drops further gather together to form bands, "layers", "pockets", flow structure, "whirl" structure, schlierens, vertical zoning, and even dykes and hydrothermal veins. (2)In the inner part of a mass, the solidus temperature of granites is higher than 760—680℃, so this part of magma should crystallize and be solidified earlier. (3)At depth, crystallization differentiation predominates, and as the result of fractional crystallization, Li, F and metal substances are gradually concentrated. The low-temperature magma chamber moves downwards and, under favourable structural conditions, the low-temperature magma is intruded upwards, forming dykes and hydrothermal veins, thus constituting a pattern of alternation of the mineralization from the deep-seated lowtemperature magma chamber and the mineralization from the top of a granite mass.
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