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《Geological Review》 1993-02
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NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOUNTAIN-BUILDING AND COLLISION FOR PLATE TECTONICS

Bai Wenji;Hu Xufeng;Yang Jingsui;Zhou Meifu Institute of Geology, CAGS, Beijing Centre for Marine Geology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N. S. B3H, Canada  
Since the advent of plate tectonics, mountain-building is generally referred toas a result of collision between oceanic plate and continental plate or continentalplate and continental plate. For example, the uplifts of the Himalayas and theTibetan plateau have been regarded as a collision between the Eurasian and Indianplates. That is a point of view that many of mountains in the continent of Chinawere built by a collision of the Indian, Eurasian and Pacific plates. But according to the geology of the ophiolite belts and the sutures in China,during the periods of the closing of paleooceans and suturing, welding and collisionof two continents there were no mountains in those wide suture zones and thuscontinental basins developed after the collision. That is the case with the YarlungZangbo-Indus suture zone, the North Tibet suture zone, the North Qilian Mountainsuture, the Junggar suture and even the sutures in South Asia and Europe. Besides these, the famous Yanshan movement occurred in eastern China, whereno ophiolite or suture exists. The Yanshan movement is not related to orogeny orplate tectonics. Up to now the mountain-building model of the theory of platetectonics is not successful in the explanation of mountain-building in continents,and mountain-building is stilla great problem for continental geology. Thus, the authors have proposed several times since 1985 that the key of thegeotectonic problem for continents is the relationship between basins and mountainsand their geneses. It is held that basin crust extends while mountain crust con-tracts, which combine to form a temporal-spatial movement. The lower crustalmaterials beneath a basin move into the root of mountains through the creep,resu-lting in mountain uplift. This basin-mountain movement is controlled by undulationof the mantle materials.
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