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《Acta Geological Sinica》 1966-01
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DIVISION OF THE QUATERNARY STRATA IN THE LOESS DISTRICT OF NORTH SHANSI AND EAST KANSU

WANG YUNG-YEN,HSUEH HSIANG-HSI,HO JU-CHANG AND CHANG KUO-WEI  
According to the characteristics of palaeontology,lithology and buried soil as wellas the relationship of the contact of different strata,the Quaternary deposits in the dis-tricts of north Shansi and east Kansu may be divided into four formations from bottomupwards,namely,the lower Pleistocene,the middle Pleistocene,the upper Pleistoceneand the Holocene. 1. Palaeontologically,in lower Pleistocene we have found a great deal of fossils ofmammals resembling the fauna of Nihowan.In the middle pleistocene the mammalsdiscovered belong entirely to the Choukoutien fauna.In the lower part of the upperPleistocene we have discovered a great deal of the Salawusu fauna types.Though wehave made no study concerning the mammalian fossils belonging to the Holocene,theepoch may be ascertained by the neolithic implements contained in the deposit. In the spore-pollen analysis,it is shown that comparatively more woody plants werefluorishing in the earlier Pleistocene,and they gradually became less and less abundantthrough the middle Pleistocene and almost completely disappeared up to the time of thelater Pleistocene.As for the bush and herbal plants this was a quite different matter.They were becoming more abundant upwards.This indicates that during the period ofthe loess formation,the moist climate had gradually transformed to dry climate.As faras the landshaft is concerned,in the earlier Pleistocene there was a forest steppe,in themiddle pleistocene——a steppe,while in the later pleistocene—4 drought steppe. 2. Lithologically,in chemical composition the content of SiO_2,A1_2O_3 and Fe_2O_3 inthe lower Pleistocene loess is the highest in quantity,and is becoming less and less throughthe middle to the upper pleistocene;moreover the quantity of all the above statedoxides distinctly falls down in the horisons between different times.As for the quantityof heavy minerals,the earlier the epoch the less the quantity of the minerals are found,and in the horizon at the boundaries of different times the quantity abruptly drops.As regards the materials of mechanical analysis,the upper pleistocene is the coarsest inits grain size with the middle pleistocene-secondary,and the lower pleistocene——thefinest.In the horizons between different times the grains become so coarse that they ap-pear to be sands or fine sands. 3. In respect to the characteristics of buried soils——The buried soil of the lowerpleistocene to the north of Yenan-Huanhsien line is reddish-brown in colour,that to thesouth of the line forms beds of dense calcareous concretions.The buried soil of themiddle pleistocene is reddish-brown.The buried soil of the upper pleistocene,south ofthe line,is light-brown and that of the Holocene contains black-loam. 4. Contact relations between strata——There exists between the upper pliocene andthe lower pleistocene a clear erosional surface.In the south part of the district sand orgravel beds are found on the surface,that gradually become fine sand to the north;inthe south part between the lower pleistocene and the lower middle pleistocene thereexists sand bed,which gradually becomes bed of fine sand towards the north.On theloess plateau the three thick beds of reddish-brown buried soil form a marking border linebetween the lower middle pleistocene and the upper middle pleistocene,indicating a relatively-long period of interruption in deposition.The border line between the upper middlepleistocene and upper pleistocene is a thick horizon of reddish-brown buried soil as well.That between the upper pleistocene and the Holocene is a black loam.All of them are:evidences of an interruption in deposition for a long period.
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