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《Acta Geologica Sinica》 2005-03
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Types and Characteristics of Endogenetic Metallic Deposits in Orogenic Belts in China and Their Metallogenic Processes

MAO Jingwen 1,2), LI Xiaofeng 2), LI Houmin 1, 2, 3), QU Xiaoming 2), ZHANG Changqing 1), XUE Chunji 3), WANG Zhiliang 2), YU Jinjie 2), ZHANG Zuoheng 2), FENG Chengyou 2), WANG Ruiting 1) 1) School of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083 2) Institute of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, 100037 3) School of Earth Sciences and Resources Management, Chang'an University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710054  
There are a lot of orogenic belts with different mineral resources through the geological history in China. After a preliminary study we propose that metallic deposits in the orogenic belts can be divided into collision-and subduction-related. The former one can be further divided into syncollision-and postcollision-related metallic deposits. The syncollisional mineral deposits can be recognized in the Tibetan Plateau, an active orogenic belt. They occur along the extension zones perpendicular to main sutures in the compresional stage, relaxation belts parallel to the main suture, pull-apart basins and detachments along the strike-slip faults. On the whole, all the mineralizations formed during the syncollisional orogenic process occur in the tensional structures. It is difficulty to find syncollisional ore deposits in ancient orogenic belts. They could be eroded or overprinted by subsequent geological processes. Most ore deposits in ancient orogens are of postcollisional age. We take the eastern Tianshan and western Qinling as samples to discuss the nature, characteristics, process, and distribution of the postcollisional metallogenic process. Although porphyry copper deposits formed in the collisional age, the others comprising gold, skarn and vein type copper, skarn copper-iron or polymetallic silver, and Cu-Ni sulfide deposits occur at a range of 290~270 Ma in eastern Tianshan, later than the orogenic age of ca. 320 Ma. The mineralization pulse in western Qinling is 210~160 Ma, which is later than the orogenic age of 240~220 Ma, too. The mineralization on the southwestern margin of the Yangtze Craton is well-known as a region with low-temperature hydrothermal deposit association in China. It comprises Carlin type gold deposits, MVT lead-zinc deposits and flood basalt-hosted copper deposits. We propose that these mineral deposits occur in Jurassic—Cretaceous extensional basins to the east of a Mesozoic N-S-trending orogenic belt caused by the subduction of the Tethys plate, which is similar to the configuration of the Cordillera orogen and great basins. Whatever develop in collisional or subductional orogens, even in syncollisional or postcollisional time, and with different temporal-spatial locations, the distribution of metallic deposits in orogens are controlled by various types of tension structures.
【Fund】: 国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(编号G1999043211和G1999043216);; 地质调查项目(编号K1.4);; 国家自然科学基金项目(编号40434011)资助的成果
【CateGory Index】: P611.1
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