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《Acta Geologica Sinica》 2016-09
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Progress and Prospects of Salt Lake Research in China

ZHENG Mianping;ZHANG Yongsheng;LIU Xifang;QI Wen;KONG Fanjing;NIE Zhen;JIA Qingxian;PU Lingzhong;HOU Xianhua;WANG Hailei;ZHANG Zhen;KONG Weiang;LIN Yongjie;R&D Center for Saline Lake and Epithermal Deposit,CAGS;Key Laboratory of SalineLake Resources and Environment,Ministry of Land and Resources;  
China has unique salt lake resources,which distribute in the east of Eurasian salt lake subzone of the Northern Hemisphere Salt Lake Zone,mainly concentrated in the regions with modern mean annual precipitation lower than 500 mm.This paper preliminarily reviews the progresses made in salt lake research in Chine for the past 60 years.In the research of Palaeoclimates and palaeoenvironments from salt lake sediments,a series of salts have been proposed to be indicators of palaeoclimate,and have been well accepted by scholars.The chloride-sulfate depositional regions of west Qaidam and east Tarim have been revealed to be the draught center of China since the Quaternary,and more than 6spreading stages of arid climate(salt forming)have been identified;Five pan lake periods with highstands have been proved to exist during the late Quaternary on Tibetan Plateau.In mineral resource prospecting and theories of theforming of salt deposits:the atlas(1∶2500000)of hydrochemical zoning of salt lakes on Tibetan Plateau has been compiled for the first time,revealing the zonal distribution and transition from carbonate type to chloride type from south to north and serving corresponding mineral assemblages for different type of salt lakes;several large continental salt deposits have been discovered and the theory of continental potash deposition have been developed,including the salt deposition in deep basins surrounded by high mountains,the mineral deposition from multistage evolution through chains of moderate or shallow lakes,origin of potassium rich brines in gravel layers,and the forming of potassium deposits through the inheriting from ancient salt deposits,establishing the framework of "Continental Potassium Deposition Theory";several new type of Mg-borate deposits have been found,including the ulexite and pinnoite bed in Da Qaidam lake,Qinghai,the pinnoite and Kurnakovite bed in Chagcam Caka,Tibet,the Kurnakovite bed in Lake Nyer,and the corresponding model of borate deposition from the cooling and dissolution of boron rich brines was proposed based on principles of geology,physics and chemistry.The anti-floatationcold crystallization method developed independently has improved the capacity of KCl production to 3million tons per year for the Qarham,serving the famous brand of potash fertilizer products.The 1.2million ton K-sulfate production line,the biggest in the world,has been built in Lop Nor,and about 1.6million tons of K-sulfate have been produced in 2015.Supported by the new technology,i.e.brine preparation in winter-cooling-solarization-isolation-lithium deposition from salt gradient solar pond"the highest lithium production base at Zabuye Lake(4421m),Tibet,has been established,which is the first lithium production base in China that reaches the year production of 5000 tons of lithium carbonate.The concept of Salt lake agriculture(Salt land agriculture)has been established based on the mass growth of Dunaliella and other bacillus-algae and the occurrence of various halophyte in saltmarsh and salt salinealkali lands,finding a new way to increase arable lands and develop related green industry in salt rich environments.Finally this paper presents some new thoughts for the further research and development on salt science,and the further progresses in salt science and technology will facilitate the maturing of the interdisciplinary science"Salinology".
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金-青海联合重点项目基金(编号:U1407207);; 专项基金(编号:21422036);; 中国地质调查局地质调查项目“西部地区钾盐矿产远景调查评价”(编号:DD20160054)联合资助的成果
【CateGory Index】: TS352;P619.211
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