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Ming loyalists and the integrated Manchu-Han culture of the early Qing

Kong Dingfang  
In the reconstruction of society in the early Qing dynasty, the divergent Manchu and Han Chinese cultures evolved from confrontation to accommodation and then ?nally to integration. In response to these processes, the attitude of the Ming loyalists to the court underwent a shift from resistance to divided prevarication and ten to concurrence. There was an interactive relationship between the Manchu-Han culture and Ming loyalists. The phenomenon of Ming loyalism was rendered prominent by the tension between Manchu and Han cultures, at the same time as it was moderated by Manchu- Han accommodation. An appreciation of early Qing history in light of this interactive relationship facilitates sound conclusions.
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