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《Arid Land Geography》 2001-04
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BENEFIT AND ECOLOGICAL LOSS OF WATER UTILIZATION IN TARIM RIVER

LI Xin YANG De gang (Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China)  
The focus of the ecological problems in Tarim River is contabescence of natural vegetation and desertification at the lower reaches because of water shortage. It is the key to estimate the economical loss of ecological resources quantificationally, and make the principle to calculate ecological economy. It becomes important to estimate the economical loss and the cost for the comeback of natural ecosystem, and compared with the benefits of the economical increasing at the upper reaches. Since 1949, irrigated area in the tributaries of Tarim River had expanded for 42.65×10 4hm 2, oases area there is 160×10 4hm 2 now; and it has increased to 3.85×10 4hm 2 in the trunk stream from zero in 1949. Annual runoff from tributaries to the trunk has reduced for 25×10 8~30×10 8m 3 in last 50 years, 74.2% of the river water consumed in the tributaries. Runoff in the trunk stream decreased gradually because of the increasing of drawn water for irrigation in the tributaries; and runoff at the lower reaches of Tarim River reduced greatly since the percent of water consuming in the upper and middle reaches has increased. The benefit of water usage is different in various place, various periods or for various purpose. Even in the same place or same period, economical benefits of water usage will be varied if use mode is different. The efficiency of water utilization in Tarim watershed is quite lower and water used for irrigation is more than 95% of the drown water from river in the tributaries. Based on the value theory of water resources and usage situation of river water in Tarim watershed, benefit apportion can be used to calculate the average benefit water usage for agriculture. If the apportion coefficient is 0.65, benefit of per cubic meter water will be 0.286 Yuan when water used to irrigation in the tributaries of Tarim River. 140.858×10 8m 3 of river water was drawn for irrigation there every year that makes 40×10 8 Yuan of direct benefit in agriculture. Annual runoff at the lower reaches has reduced for 70% compared to that 30 years ago. If the annual runoff in the lower increase to 9.0×10 8m 3/a which equals the average in 1966~1975, 8×10 8m 3 more of runoff should be flow from the tributaries to the trunk stream every year, and the bank for control flood should be built along the main reach of Tarim River. The total cost of increasing runoff from the tributaries and bank building will be 8.8×10 8 Yuan.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金项目 (4 98710 17)资助
【CateGory Index】: TV213
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