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《Arid Land Geography》 2006-03
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Soil Erodiable K in the catchment of Qinghai Lake

LIU Ji-feng LI Shi-jie Qin Ning-sheng Yu Shou-bing 1 Nanjing Institute Of Geography ■ Limnology CAS,Nanjing 210008,Jiangsu,China; 2 Graduate school of CAS,Beijing 100039,China; 3 Centre of meteorological data,Xining 810001,Qinghai,China  
Qinghai Lake is the largest saline lake in China with a water area of 4260km~2.The catchment area of Qinghai Lake is 29 661km~2.The lake level has been descending in about 10 cm per year during the last tens years because of the climate warming and human activity,which has been leading the ecological and environmen- tal problems in the catchment getting severe,such as pasture degradation and soil desertification.It is necessary to study the characteristic of soil erosion for the planning of the soil and water conservation in this region.Based upon the data of the subsoil species and the second soil Survey information of Qinghai Province,this paper estab- lished the database of various subsoil types in the catchment of Qinghai Lake.The erodibility K value was calcu- lated with the general equation developed by Wischmeier.Conversion of different soil texture was completed by the method of cubic spline function,and organic matter content and minimum saturated hydraulic conductivity were used to determine the soil texture and profile permeability classes respectively.Digital soil map of the catchment has been obtained from the base maps using Arc/info programme.Spatial distribution map of erodi- bility K values has been made by converting the soil physical and chemical database into attribute database of digital soil map.Based on these results,the indexes to classify the soil erodibility were developed in the catch- ment of Qinghai Lake. The results indicate that the areas of medium erodibility soil and higher erodibility soil make 72.1% and 15.5% respectively of the whole area of the catchment,which shows that potential soil erosion could be quite strong.The characteristics of spatial distribution of soil erodibility are listed as follows:(1)The area with higher erodibility is mainly concentrating around Qinghai Lake with the chestnut soil,and some small areas in high mountain in the northwestern part of the catchment;(2) the lower terraces and the lake-side plain are of the lower erodibility K values.The main soil types are meadow bog and marshy soil;(3) the areas in the north and east sides of the lake have been seriously desertificated.In addition,erodibility K value has seasonal and yearly variation with the ground conditions.Higher erodibility K value and overgrazing as well as unreasonable cultiva- tion could be the main reasons for the strong soil erosion and desertification.Ecosystem in this region is very vul- nerable at the present,and more attention should be paid to these problems to prevent the ecosyetem from dete- rioration.
【Fund】: 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所知识创新工程前沿项目(CXNiglas-A01);; 中国科学院重要方向项目(批准号:KZCXZ-SW=118)联合资助
【CateGory Index】: S157
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