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《Arid Land Geography》 2010-06
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Spatial distribution of precipitation using DEM in Xinjiang,China

LI Jun1,YANG Qing1,SHI Yu-guang2(1 Institute of Desert Meteorology,China Meteorological Administration,Urumqi 830002,Xinjiang,China;2 Xinjiang Meteorological Bureau,Urumqi 830002,Xinjiang,China)  
Precipitation constitutes one of the most important meteorological and climatological parameters for our ecosystems.However,in most cases,the network of the precipitation measuring stations is sparse and available data are insufficient to characterize the highly variable precipitation spatial distribution.This is especially true for mountain areas,where the complexity of the precipitation distribution is combined with the measurement difficulties.Therefore,it is necessary to develop methods to estimate precipitation in areas where precipitation has not been measured,using data from the surrounding meteorological stations.Topography has the important effect on the spatial distribution of precipitation.Spatial correlations between precipitation and geographical and topographical features can be used to estimation spatial distribution of precipitation.Our aim in this study is to develop an objective mapping and interpolation method that takes into account geographical variables,and uses GIS techniques to obtain spatial distribution of precipitation in Xinjiang in northwestern China.In this paper,an empirical methodology for modeling the spatial distribution of precipitation in Xinjiang using GIS was proposed.This methodology is based on a multiple regression modeling followed by kriging of residuals.In regression modeling,as dependent variables,we used annual and seasonal precipitation,whereas as independent variables,we used altitude,latitude,longitude,slope,aspect,etc.Relationship between precipitation and geographical and topographical variables(longitude,latitude,elevation,minimum and maximum elevation with different direction within given radius,etc) were used to improve the spatial distribution of precipitation estimation.The geographical and topographical variables were derived from the 1 km resolution digital elevation model(DEM).Precipitation data,for the observation period 1971 to 2005,were assembled from 131 observation stations.Precipitation data from 112 observation stations were used to initialize the model.The data from the other 19 stations were retained to valid it.In this study,the results are satisfactory in the case of mean seasonal and annual precipitation over the period 1971 to 2005,with the correlation coefficients(R),between the estimated and observed valued,of 0.926 3(year),0.805 9(spring),0.867 7(summer),0.807 5(autumn),and 0.787 0(winter).Through GIS technology,the spatial distribution maps were generated for mean seasonal and annual precipitation in Xinjiang.This paper investigates the application of a GIS to construct DEM-derived terrain variables that are used to interpolate seasonal precipitation data for every 1 km by 1 km grid cell in Xinjiang.The results of validation suggest terrain-precipitation model building using terrain variables,followed by kriging of the regression residuals,is useful for interpolating precipitation data.Interpolation results can be transferred to any grid point in the domain for which the characteristics of the terrain variables are known.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金(40701148);; 新疆维吾尔自治区自然科学基金(200821176);; 中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费项目(IDM200604);; 新疆气象局科学研究与技术开发项目(200718)
【CateGory Index】: P426.613
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