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MANDIBLE OF THE SINANTHROPUS-TYPE DISCOVERED AT LANTIAN,SHENSI——Sinanthropus lantianensis

Woo JU-KANG (Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology,Academia Sinica)  
A fossil mandible of the Sinanthropus-type was discovered by a field team of the Institute in July 19,1963 near Lantian District,Shensi Province.It was found in the reddish clays of Middle Pleistocene age. The mandible is very well preserved except small parts of the rami.It belongs to a female individual of advanced age. Morphological descriptions and measurements were made on the mandible.Besides, three fragments of the mandibles of Sinanthropus pekinensis found at the Locality I of Choukoutien in 1936—1937 were briefly described. On the whole,the Lantian specimen is very closely related to Sinanthropus pekin- ensis of Choukoutien.Nevertheless,it cannot be identified exactly with S.pekinensis. The Lantian specimen has smaller angle of inclination,greater difference between the height of the symphyseal part and that at the level of mental foramen,larger angle of the molar rows than any specimen of S.pekinensis so far found at Choukoutien.The bony prominences of the mandible such as the prominentia lateralis and the torus mandi- bularis of the body and the crista ectocondyloidea and the torus triangularis of the rami are less marked.The size of the teeth is larger than that of female specimens of S.pe- kinensis,but smaller than that of the male ones.Generally,it approaches the average figures of the teeth of both sexes of S.pekinensis.In view of these differences,there- fore,I assign to the Lantian specimen the provisional name,Sinanthropus lantianensis. It is interesting to note that the Lantian ape-man shows the congenital absence of the third molars on both sides. There is definite evidence to indicate that the Lantian mandible was affected by periodontoclasia.The ante-mortem loss of the right first premolar was probably also caused by the same disease.
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