Full-Text Search:
Home|Journal Papers|About CNKI|User Service|FAQ|Contact Us|中文
《Acta Palaeontologica Sinica》 1956-01
Add to Favorite Get Latest Update

QUATERNARY MAMMALIAN FOSSILS FROM HSINTSAI, SOUTH-EASTERN PART OF HONAN

Pei Wen-chung, Laboratory of Vertebrate Palaeontology, Academia Sinica  
During the digging of a new course for shortening and straightening the Hung River, a tributary of Huai River, in Hsintsai District, south-eastern part of Honan Province, considerable amount of Mammalian fossils was encountered. Members of the Honan Provincial Commissioner for Cultural Affairs and those of the Laboratory of Vertebrate Palaeontology, Academia Sinica, successively made some excavations and collected more Mammalian fossils from this region. Except an unimportant part of the collected material, all the fossils were entrusted to the author for inve- vestigation and the result is summarized as follows. According to the observation of Messrs. Wang Tsun-yi, Li Shao-tseng and the author himself, the section of the main fossiliferous locality of this region is given in Fig. 2 on page 77 in the Chinese text. There are two systems of sedimentation along the Hung River: 1) deposits of the most ancient river bed and the river banks: at the base of which is the risidual Red Clay (6), mainly formed by weathering of the country-rock; in the middle, a layer of hard yellow sands (4), intercalated by a thin stratum of greenish marl; and on the top, a layer of sandy loess (3), 2) filling in a burried channel, black clay (2) at the bottom and grayish loess (1) on the surface. The mammalian and other fossils were collected from the layers (4) and (2). We have no accurate record of the horizon where the fossils were found. However, judging by the matrix adhered to the fossils, we can distinguish from what layer certain forms coming. By such a means of distinction, we recognize that the layer of yellow sands (6) has yeilded Palaeoloxodon tokunagai, while the black clay (2), Elephas namadicus, Elaphurus davidianus, etc. Consequently the geological age of the hard yellow sands is lower to middle Pleistocene (Nihowan and Choukoutien) and that of the black clay, late Pleistocene. Neither human remains nor Palaeolithic stone implements were found in any of these layers. But one piece of Pseudaxis antler shows a circular cutting made undoubtedly by stone implement. This would indicate, nevertheless, the presence of human activity in this region during the Quaternary time. The significance of the discovery of the Hsintsai Quaternary Mammalian fauna lies in the recognition of a new faunistic region, provissionally named as the Trogontherium-Elaphurus fauna of Huaiho Region, in addition to the well known Stegodon-Ailuropoda fauna of South China Caves, and the Sinanthropus-Euryceros fauna of North China. Since the liberation of China, in the construction work of the river system in the Huaiho Region, a series of Mammalian fossil localities was discovered and some important materials were collected. They are fossils from Hsin-Yi-Ho of N. Kia- ngsu, Hsia-Tsao-Wan and Chitsuai of N. Anhwei and Shao Hsien of Central Anhwei. All the fossils were unearthed from the strata some meters below the surface and entirely unknown before the liberation of China in 1949. The discovery and establishment of the Trogontherium-Elaphurus fauna of Huaiho Region has very much enriched our knowledge of Quaternary study in China and thrown much light in the research of bio-geographical region of both Pleistocene period and present day. DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES From Liantsun and Chushenmiao, Hsintsai, we have collected a number of species of Insectivora, Rodentia and Carnivora. But they are all poorly represented and have no faunistic and geo-chronological significance. On the other hand, certain forms of Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla and Proboscidean are quite interesting and worthwhile to describe here. Perissodactyla Rhinocerotidae Rhinoceros tichorhinus Fischer (=Coelodonta antiquitatis Blumenbach) One right lower jaw with P_3-M_3 in situ indicates the occurrence of Rhinoceros tichorhinus in the Hsintsai black clay. The outer surface of its lower cheek teeth is flat or concaved in. This character is sufficient for determining it as Rh. tichor- hinus but not Rh. sinensis. The M1 of our present specimen bears a minor fold on the anterior outer side of the anterior lobe. Such a fold is observed by Teilhard on his specimens from both Nihowan and Sjara-osso-gol. However this character is not observed on the speci- men from Yǘshuhsien of Kirin. Equidae Equus hemionus Pallas From Hsintsai several isolated teeth of a small Equus were collected. By the structure of a milk upper cheek tooth (Fig. 3, p. 77, Chinese text) this small Equus is referable to E. hemionus which is known both in Sjara-osso-gol of Ordos and the Upper Gave of Choukoutien. Equus prjewalskyi Poliakof One piece of the distal part of a tibia is larger than the other two, and similar in dimension to those of E. prjewalskyi of Sjara-osso-go1 given by Boule and Tell- hard, indicating the presence of Prjewalsky's horse besides the wild ass in the Hsintsai Region in Quaternary time. Artiodactyla Cervidae Cervus (Rusa) unicolor Bechstein Three pieces of basal part of antler represent southern Rusa deer. The antlers were all naturally sheded. They are very large in size and with longitudinal shallow furrows on the surface. The first tine branched from the main beam near the burr forming an acute angle. By thier general appearance, they are referable to Rusa deer and probably Rusa unicolor Bechstein as compared with Lyddeker's description (Lyddeker, 1898, p. 143). Elaphurus menziesianus Sowerby (=E. dividianus Milne-Edwards) The most interesting form of the Hsintsai fossil mammals is the Elaphurus which is represented by many pieces of antler fragments. They differ from those of other deer in having flattened tines, rugose surface, and rounded tubercles or small "hooks" on their borders. Elaphurus deer is known since long time ago, as an half-domesticated animal of royal park of Shang-Yin dynasty (1100-1400 B.C.), the earliest dynasty of Chinese inscribed history. During the recent years such a kind of deer was found widely distributed in the Shang-Ying ruins in Honan and Hopei Provinces. Elaphurus deer in fossil state was first recorded in Chi-tsuai of North Anhwei. And now it is discovered in the Quaternary deposits in Hsintsai of South-east Ho- nan. This would indicate that during Pleistocene, the Elaphurus deer was wondered in the forests in the Huaiho Region. But by the increasing of human activity,such as deforestation and cultivation of land, this kind of animal gradually disappeared in wild condition and only survived in the royal zoo under half-domestication. Sinomegaceros ordosianus Young Three basal parts of antler, of which one is of young individual, represent the interesting from of Sinomegaceros ordosianus Young in the black clay (2) of Hsintsai. The basal tine begins just above the burr and immediately becomes flattened. The plane of the flattened basal tine is transversal to the main beam and nearly parallel to the burr. The main beam is rather straight in young individual as shown by Fig. 5, I, but strongly curved back and outward in the old one (Fig. 5,Ⅱ). The plane of flattened part of the main beam seems to be perpendicular to that of the flattened basal tine. One strong depression or furrow presents on the lower side of the main beam. By the foregoing characters of our Hsintsai specimens it is beyond any doubt to refer them to Sinomegaceros ordosianus Young from Sjara-osso-gol of Ordos. No mandible of this kind of deer is known in our present collection. Proboscidean Elephantidae Palaeoloxodon tokunagai Matsumoto One broken D~3, two broken M_1 and some other fragmentary material re- present Palaeoloxodon tokunagai. By the presence of distinct loxodont sinus, of iso- lated enamel circle and square end on labial end of the lamella, and of four separate enamel circles on the lamellae when freshly worn, they are quite different from Elephas namadicus Falcorner Cautley which is also found in the present collection. As the adhered matrix being yellow sands, this kind of elephant was probably collected from the upper part of the layer of Yellow Sands (4). In North China, Palaeoloxodon tokunagai is known in early Pleistocene horizon, consequently the geological age of the Hsintsai yellow sand layer (4) should be Lower Pleistocene (Sanmenian and Choukoutienian). Elephas of. namadicus Falcorner Cautley Three molar teeth indicate the presence of a second kind of elephant which is comparable with E. namadicus. All the materials seem to be collected from the layer of black clay (2) on account of such a kind of matrix being still adhered on these teeth. For having the band-like lamellae, no distinct loxodont sinus, and point-dash-point pattern on fresh lamella, the present elephant is very close to the Chinese materials which have been previously refered to Elephas namadicus. How- ever, as compared with the newly discovered Tsingtsun E. namadicus of Shansi our present Hsintsai teeth seem to be less closs to P. tokunagai. The explanation may be that the Tsingtsun namadicus had only begun to differentiate from tokunagai, while the Hsintsai elephant was somewhat advanced and specialized. E. namadicus is usually known in North China in all horizons of Late Plei- stocene. But it seems that it is most characteristic for Late Pleistocene. Therefore, we may safely regard the layer of black clay of Hsintsai as Late Pleistocene, equivalent to the "Loessic" period of North China. Primate Homo sp. From the black clay of Chushenmiao, we have collected one piece of Pseudaxis antler, of which the tip was first cut by stone implement all arround its surface about one millimeter deep and then broken off by forcing. Though we have found no human skeletal remains and Palaeolithic stone implements, such a piece of deer antler bearing undoubtedly human hand work would sufficiently indicate the presence of human activity in Hsintsai Region during the Late Pleistocene time.
Download(CAJ format) Download(PDF format)
CAJViewer7.0 supports all the CNKI file formats; AdobeReader only supports the PDF format.
【References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Sun Dianqing (Institute of Geomechanics, Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources);ON DISCUSSION OF QUATERNARY SUB-GLACIATIONS IN CHINA[J];Quaternary Sciences;1989-01
2 ZHEN SHOU-NAN (Museum of Natural History, Peking);PALAEOLOXODON MANDIBLE FROM MIYUN, PEKING[J];;1960-02
3 LI YIU-HENG(Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, Academia Sinica);RECONNAISSANCE OF SOME MAMMALIAN FOSSIL LOCALITIES IN THE REGION OF UPPER HAN RIVER[J];;1962-03
4 CHI HUNG-XIANG (Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology,Academia Sinica);LATE PLEISTOCENE MAMMALS FROM LANTIAN,SHENSI[J];;1974-03
5 Chow Benshun Institute of Archaeology, Academia Sinica;THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE WOOLLY RHINOCEROS AND WOOLLY MAMMOTH[J];;1978-01
6 PEI WEN-CHUNG Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Palaeoanthropology, Academia Sinica;ON THE PROBLEM OF THE"BONE IMPLEMENTS"OF THE CHOUKOUTIEN SINANTHROPUS SITE[J];The Chinese Journal of Archaeology;1960-02
7 An Chih-min;TRIAL DIGGINGS ON THE PALAEOLITHIC CAVE DEPOSITS AT HSIAONANHAI IN ANYANG,HONAN PROVINCE[J];Chinese Journal of Archaeology;1965-01
8 Chou Pen-hsiung;THE FOSSIL REMAINS OF VERTEBRATES UNEARTHED FROM THE PALAEOLITHIC CAVE DEPOSITS AT HSIAONANHAI IN ANYANG,HONAN PROVINCE[J];Chinese Journal of Archaeology;1965-01
9 ZHU Liang(Institute of Heluo Culture,Henan University of Science and technology,Luoyang 471003,China);Archaeological Study of Environment and Culture in the Pleistocene Epoch in Henan[J];Journal of Henan University of Science & Technology(Social Science);2007-05
10 Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology;2006 EXCAVATION ON THE PALEOLITHIC LINGJING SITE IN XUCHANG[J];Acta Archaeologica Sinica;2010-01
【Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 1 Hits
1 YOUNG CHUNG-CHIEN AND MINCHEN M.CHOW Laboratory of Vertebrate Paleontology,Acadcmia Sinica;PLEISTOCENE STRATIGRAPHY AND NEW FOSSIL LOCALITIES OF SHIHHUNG AND WUHO,NORTHERN ANHWEI[J];Acta Palaeontologica Sinica;1955-01
【Co-citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 8 Hits
1 WU Hai quan, JIANG Lai li, HOU Ming jin, DAI Sheng qian ,LIU Jia yun, and ZHANG Zhi shu (Anhui Academy of Geological Survey, Hefei, 230001);COLLATION OF THE NEOGENE SEQUENCES OF THE SHIBA AREA IN MINGGUANG,ANHUI[J];Journal of Stratigraphy;2004-01
2 Fang Zhongjing, Ji Fengju, Xiang Hongfa and Ding Menglin;THE CHARACTERISTICS OF QUARTERNARY MOVEMENTS ALONG THE MIDDLE SEGMENT OF THE OLD TANCHENG-LUJIANG FRACTURE-ZONE AND THEIR SEISMOGEOLOGIC CONDITIONS[J];Chinese Journal of Geology;1976-04
3 LIU CHIA-LUNG Dept.of Geology,Hofei Polytechnical Institute,Anhwei;SOME QUATERNARY MAMMALIAN FOSSILS FROM NORTHERN ANHWEI[J];;1961-04
4 Li Chuan-kuei Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Academia Sinica;A MIOCENE GIBBON-LIKE PRIMATE FROM SHIHHUNG, KIANGSU PROVINCE[J];;1978-03
5 Li Chuankuei Lin Yipu Gu Yumin Hou Lianhai Wu Wenyu Qiu Zhuding(Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Academia Sinica);THE ARAGONIAN VERTEBRATE FAUNA OF XIACAOWAN, JIANGSU——1. A brief introduction to the fossil localities and preliminary report on the new material[J];Vertebrata Palasiatica;1983-04
6 Yuan Paixin (Regional Geological Survey Team, Geological Bureau of Jiangsu Province);QUATERNARY IN HUANGHUAI PLAIN,NONTH JIANGSU PROVINCE[J];Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology;1985-03
7 DU Jian guo(Geological Survey of Jiangsu Province,Nanjing 210018,China);The Features of Quaternary Sedimentary Strata in the Region of Lianyungang[J];JIANGSU GEOLOGY;1999-04
8 Nan-shen Shiao;The Hwatung "Underground Sea"[J];Journal of Nanjing University(Natural Sciences);1959-02
【Co-references】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Quo ZHUOPU CHEN ENTU(Institute of Chinese Drugs of Sichuan)WANG YOUZHI(Sichuan Health Center,Sichuan);A NEW SUBSPECIES OF SIKA DEER FROM SICHUAN——CERVUS NIPPON SICHUANICUS SUBSP. NOV.[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1978-02
2 CAO KEQING(Museum of Natural History, Shanghai);ON THE TIME OF EXTINCTION OF THE WILD MI-DEER IN CHINA[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1978-03
3 Chu Ching Long Zhi(Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica);THE VICISSITUDES OF THE GIANT PANDA[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1983-01
4 CHU GUOZHONG LIANG CHONGQI RUAN YUNQIUWANG WEI HOU YUNQIU (Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry);THE SUMMER HABITAT AND POPULATION NUMBERS OF THE MONGOLIAN WILD ASS IN THE KALAMAILI MOUNTAINS WILDLIFE RESERVE, XINJIANG UYGUR AUTONOMOUS REGION[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1985-02
5 KANG Ai-Li ZHANG En-Di (Department of Biology,East China Normal University Shanghai 200062,China);Behavioral Observations on the Mother/offspring Relationship in Takins in Captivity[J];Chinese Journal of Zoology;2001-02
6 BI Jun-Huai①② HU De-Fu① DING Ying② SI Xiao-Yan② JIANG Zhi-Gang③(①College of Life Science and Technology,Beijing Forestry University,Beijing 100083;②College of Life Science and Technology,Inner Mongolia Normal University,Huhhot 010022;③Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080,China);Time Budget and Behavior Pattern of Asiatic Wild Ass[J];Chinese Journal of Zoology;2007-04
7 Lu Xiangdong1 Wang Chaogui2 Wang Jianqiang1 Tian Jialong1 Shao Weigeng1 Xiao Aizhong3 Ai Hongyan3 (1.Heilongjiang wildlife institute Harbin 150040;2.Mudanjiang forestry department;3.Hebeiforestry department);Reproductive habitation selection of Oriental white stork and reproductive behavior observing[J];Quarterly of Forest By-product and Speciality In China;2004-02
8 Liu Zhensheng, Wang Xiaoming, Cao Lirong(Department of Biology, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062, P. R. China);Diurnal Behavior and Activity Rhythm of Captive Blue Sheep in Winter[J];Journal of Northeast Forestry University;2005-01
9 ;STUDIES ON THE QUATERNARY GLACIAL GEOLOGY OF CHINA[J];;1987-01
10 ;ON THE LOCALITY OF EXTINCTION OF THE WILD MI-DEER IN CHINA[J];Zoological Research;1982-04
【Secondary References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 LIU Jian-quan~1, YANG Jian-hong~2(1 Administration of Qilianshan National Nature Conservation,Zhangye 734000, Gansu, China; 2 Ganzhouqu Forestry Seedling Management Station, Zhangye 734000, Gansu, China);Investigation on effect of human economic activities on endangered wildlife in Gansu, China[J];Journal of Safety and Environment;2004-05
2 L Jun (Research Center For Chinese Frontier Archaeology Of Jilin University,Changchun Jilin 130000,China);A Discussion to the Xiuyan Jade's Position and Function in the Origin of Chinese Jade's Culture from Archaeology[J];Journal of Anshan Normal University;2003-05
3 Yan Yongding ( Second H ydrogcological Team of the Geological Bureau of Shanxi Province );INVOLUTION IN SALAWUSU SERIES[J];Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology;1982-03
4 WANG TSIANG-KE;ON THE TAXONOMIC STATUS OF SPECIES, GEOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF AILUROPODA[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;1974-02
5 ZHANG Rong\|Zu (Yong\|Zu) (Institute of Geographical Science and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101,China);GEOLOGICAL EVENTS AND MAMMALIAN DISTRIBUTION IN CHINA[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;2002-02
6 LIU Hai ① ② YANG Guang② WEI Fu-Wen **① LI Ming② HU Jin-Chu③ (① Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing\ 100080, China) (② Institute of Genetic Resource, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing\ 210097, China) (③ Institute of Rare Animals and Plants, Sichuan Normal College, Nanchong\ 637002, China);Sequence variability of the mitochondrial DNA control region and population genetic structure of sika deers (Cervus nippon) in China*[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;2003-01
7 CHU Hong-Jun1,2,4,JIANG Zhi-Gang3,LAN Wen-Xu4,WANG Chen5,TAO Yong-Shan6,JIANG Feng61.Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology,Chinese Academy of Science,Xining 810008,China2.Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China3.Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Science,Beijing 100101,China4.Wildlife Conservation Office,Altay Prefecture,Xinjiang 836500,China5.Xinjiang Research Center for Breeding Przewalski's Horse,Urumqi 830000,China6.Altay Management Station,Kalamaili Mountains Ungulate Nature Reserve,Xinjiang 836500,China;Dietary overlap among kulan Equus hemionus,goitered gazelle Gazella subgutturosa and livestock[J];Acta Zoologica Sinica;2008-06
8 WU Hua~(①②) HU Jie~(①③) FANG Sheng-Guo~① KONG Ling-Lu~④ JIA Fang~④(① State Conservation Center for Gene Resources of Endangered Wildlife,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310029;② College of Chemistry and Life Sciences,Zhejiang Normal University,Jinhua 321004;③ College of Life Sciences,Chinese West Normal University,Nanchong 637002;④ Deer Farm,Sichuan Chinese Traditional Medicine Materials Corporation,Dujiangyan 611830,China);Genetic Diversity and Genetic Structure of Domestic Sika Deer in China[J];Chinese Journal of Zoology;2006-04
9 BI Jun-Huai①② HU De-Fu① DING Ying② SI Xiao-Yan② JIANG Zhi-Gang③(①College of Life Science and Technology,Beijing Forestry University,Beijing 100083;②College of Life Science and Technology,Inner Mongolia Normal University,Huhhot 010022;③Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080,China);Time Budget and Behavior Pattern of Asiatic Wild Ass[J];Chinese Journal of Zoology;2007-04
10 Liu Xiang;STRATIFICATION SUBDIVISION OF QUATERNARY SEDIMENTS IN THE MIDDLE REACHES (JILIN-TAOLAI ZHAO BELT) OF THE SONGHUA RIVER[J];;1984-04
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 5 Hits
1 FENG Xingwu (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology Chines Academy of Sciences,Beij ing 100044);HISTORY AND STATUS QUO OF THE RESEARCH ON PALEOLITHIC BONE ARTIFACTS AND HORNWORK IN CHINA[A];[C];2004
2 Sun Dienqing,Wu Xihao and Pu Qingyu;A DISCUSSION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN QUATERNARY GLACIATIONS AND STRATIGRAPHIES IN CHINA[A];[C];1982
3 Pu Qingyu;THE DALI GLACIATION AND THE POSTGLACIAL IN EASTERN CHINA——A PRELIMINARY DISCUSSION OF CHINA' S CLIMATIC VARIATION DURING PAST 30,000 YEARS[A];[C];1982
4 Wang Panji, Yang Yongfang, Hu Yu (College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001);PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY AND ITS PROTECTION IN FUNIU MOUNTAIN AREA OF HENAN PROVINCE[A];[C];1998
5 JIANG Zhigang,LI Chunwang and ZENG Yan (Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100080);Advances in Wildlife Researches in China[A];[C];2002
©2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Knowledge Network Technology Co., Ltd.(Beijing)(TTKN) All rights reserved