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《Acta Palaeontologica Sinica》 1966-02
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ON THE PROBABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SYSTEMATIC POSITION OF GLOSSOGRAPTUS

A.T.Mu (Institute of Geology and Palaeontology,Academia Sinica) S.G.ZHAN (Sinkiang Branch,Academia Sinica)  
Recently one of the writers (Zhan) and Mr.X.D.Qiao separately collected anumber of Ordovician graptolites from the Keping district of western Xinjiang (Sinkiang),Among these graptolites some species of Glossograptus are noteworthy.All the specimensof these Glossograpti are pyritized and preserved in relief in the black shales of theMiddle Ordovician Sargan formation.The following species are recognized:Glossograptus sinicus sp.nov.G.kepingensis sp.nov.G.cf.ciliatus var.debilis RuedemannGlossograptus sinicus sp.nov.(P1.Ⅰ,figs.1—2) resembles closely Glossograptusscanicus Hadding of Sweden in the general aspect,but differs therefrom in the smallerrhabdosome,in the character of the proximal end and in the less curved thecae.The rhab-dosome is 8 mm in length and 2 mm in width (exclusive of apertural spines).Thefirst two pairs of thecae grow downwards,and the third pair of thecae begins to curveinwards and covers the proximal part of the sicula and of the first 4 thecae.Thencethe first two pairs of thec are dipleural and the third pair and others are monopleuralin arrangement.There are 8 thecae in 5 mm.Glossograptus kepingensis sp.nov.(Pl.Ⅰ,fig.5) bears some resemblance to Glos-sograptus hincksii (Hopkinson),but differs strikingly in the character of the proximalend of the rhabdosome.The rhabdosome is 16.7 mm long and 2 mm wide.Only thefirst pair of thecae grows downwards.The second pair of thecae begins to curveinwards.Thus nearly all the sicula and the first pair of thecae are covered by the secondand third pairs of thecae.Only the apertural portion of sicula and that of the first twothecae are visible.The thecae are rather straight,numbering 13—9 in 10 mm.Glossograptus cf.ciliatus var.debilis Ruedemann (Pl.Ⅰ,figs.3—4) may be com-pared with Glossograptus cf.ciliatus var.debilis described by Hsü in 1934.In ourspecimens at least the first pair of thecae grows downwards.In these forms the proximal end may be clearly observed.The first two or fourthecae grow downwards.The second or third pair of thecae bens to curve inwards.Thus the proximal end of Glossograptus is really dipleural,though the main part of the rhabdosome is monopleural.In the monopleural rhabdosome,Glossograptus may be compared with Cryptograptus.In Cryptograptus tricornis (Carruthers) no thecae grow downwards (Bulman,1938),butin a young form referred to Cryptograptus sch(?)feri Lapworth by Elles and Wood(1908) the first thecae grow downwards just as those in Glossograptus.In the character of the proximal end,Glossograptus resembles closely Cardiograptuswhich is a direct derivative of Oncograptus.Compared with the development of Cryp-tograptus and Oncograptus (Bulman,1936),Glossograptus is most probably of a primitiveDichograptid type in development as shown in text-fig.1 given on p.102.Cardiograptusis derived from Isograptus through Oncograptus as held by Harris (1933),but in Bulman'sopinion,Oncograptus is derived from Tetragraptus and is not related to Isograptus,fortheir development is different.The Chinese materials collected by Mr.Huang fmsouthern Jiangxi (Kiangsi) confirm Harris' view.It is undoubted that Isograptus-Onco-graptus-Cardiograptus represents a distinct evolutional series.It seems to the writers thatthe development of Isograptus might be in different types as in Tetragraptus and Didy-mograptus.All the Isograptids,Cardiograptids and Cryptograptids are characterized by the longthecae growing downwards from the apical portion of a long sicula.Glossograptus andCryptograptus as well as Paracardiograptus are derived from Cardiograptus owing to thecurving of the proximal thecae.In Glossograptus and Cryptograptus nearly all the pro-ximal thecae curve inwards,forming thus a monopleural rhabdosome,whereas in Paracar-diograptus the proximal thecae curve outwards forming thus a dipleural rhabdosome.All these graptolites are composed of two scandent stipes.In Cardiograptus and Para-cardiograptus,the two stipes are adnate dorsally (back to back),whereas in Glosso-graptus and Cryptograptus the two stipes are adnate laterally (side by side).Accorngly,the monopleural rhabdosome,similar to the dipleural,is only a character of family.Itis not a character of a suborder as held by Jaanusson (1960) and Bulman (1963).All the graptoloids which consist of 2 or 4 scandent stipes being adnate dorsally orlaterally represent a new suborder.Suborder Axonocrypta nov.is herein proposed.Thisnew suborder consists of the following families and genera:Order Graptoloidea Lapworth,1875Suborder Axonocrypta nov.Ⅰ.Family Phyllograptidae Lapworth,1873 (4-stiped)Genus Phyllograptus Hall,1858Genus Trigonograptus Nicholson,1869;emend.Hsü et P.L.Chen,1964(=Pseudotrigonograptus Mu et Lee,1958)Ⅱ.Family Cardiograptidae nov.(2-stiped,dipleural)Genus Cardiograptus Harris et Keble,1916Genus Paracardiograptus Mu et Lee,1958Genus Skiagraptus Harris,1933Ⅲ.Family Cryptograptidae Hadding,1915 (2-stiped,monopleural)Genus Cryptograptus Lapworth,1880Genus Nanograptus Hadding,1915Genus Glossograptus Emmons,1855 (?Lonchograptus Tullberg,1880) Genus Paraglossograptus Mu,in Hsü 1959The new suder Axonocrypta stands between Suborder Axonolipa Frech andSuborder Axonophora Frech.It is derived from Axonolipa owing to the concrescenceof the stipes,and evolves into Axonophora owing to the formation of a septum in whichthe virgula is embedded.The new family Cardiograptidae of Axonocrypta is the mostimportant one from which the family Cryptograptidae and the family Diplograptidae ofAxonophora are derived. Glyptograptus sinodentatus Mu et Lee,the oldest Axonophorousgraptoloid in China,is most probably derived from Paracardiograptus or an allied form.In Axonocrypta the virgula is well developed in Cryptograptidae,is usually metwith in Cardiograptidae as in Cardiograptus,Paracardiograptus and Skiagraptus,and isvery rare in phyllograptidae,only known in Phyllograptus cf.angustifolius Hall (Bulman,1931).The virgula in Axonocrypta is intercalated between the scandent stipes,whereas inAxonophora it is embedded in the septum in septate biserial forms,or lies freely in thecommon canal in aseptate biserial forms.(s text-fig.2 given on p.103)
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