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《Acta Palaeontologica Sinica》 1985-06
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Zhang Wen-tang and Hou Xian-guang (Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica)  
In 1984, while collecting bradoriids from the early Lower Cambrian Chiumgchussu Formotion of Chengjiang, eastern Yunnan, the junior author unexpectedly discovered a yellowish muddy shale bed which contains remarkably preserved fossils including brachiopods, bradoriids, annelids, medusdid, trilobite Naraoia and many other arthropods. Judged from the presence of the trilobites Eoredlichia intermedia (Lu), Yunnanocephalus yunnancnsis (Mausuy), Kuanyangia sp. and the bradoriids Kwnmingella, Liangshanella, the shale bed undoubtedly belongs to the basal part of the Eoredlichia-Wutingaspis Zone of the Early Cambrian Chiungchussu Stage. It is very interesting to note that humdreds of specimens with well-preserved antenna, alimentary canal, alimentary diverticula, biramous appendages and hypostoma, etc., represent two species of the unusual trilobite Naraoia, i.e., N. longicaudata sp. nov. and N. spinosa sp. nov..The dorsal exoskeleton of N. longicaudata is divided into two shields, with the posterior one more elongate and nearly twice as long as the anterior one. Posterolateral angles of the anterior shield are rounded, lacking a pair of posterolateral spines. Tips of the appendages project out from below the shields. One specimen is shown to have up to, 22 pairs of biramous, trilobite-like appendages, with the three anterior pairs belonging to the anterior shield, following the rounded quadrate hypostoma, which is divided by a very narrow median furrow into a large broadly conical and convex anterior lobe with broadly rounded front, and a narrowly (sag., exsag.) flattened posterior lobe. The lateral border of hypostoma is relatively broad and flat. A very small trapezoidal plate just situated sagittally behind the hypostoma probably represents the metastoma. Biramous appendages are of the same type as those shown by Whittington (1977). This new species differs from Naraoia compacta Walcott 1912, the type species of this genus, in the longer and narrower posterior shield, the more pairs of biramous appendages, and the absence of posterolateral spines on the anterior shield.The second species, N. spinosa based on 30 odd well-preserved specimens is characterized by seven or nine pairs of lateral small spines and a pair of larger posterolateral spines on the margin of the posterior shield, by a pair of posterolateral spines on the anterior shield, and by the less (ca. 17 or 18) pairs of biramous appendages. The axial region is poorly defined and the alimentary canal may be filled with sediments. The filling is preserved in various shapes, which appears clavate in the anterior and gradually becomes narrower toward the posterior (pl. Ⅳ, fig. 1), narrower in the middle, and broader both anteriorly and posteriorly (pl. Ⅲ, fig. 5), or broader rodlike more or less in the same width, or even zigzag in parttern (pl. Ⅳ, fig. 1). Whittington (1977) pointed out that these variations presumably reflect either the amount of filling at the time of dying out, or the effects of com. pression, or possibly the segmentation of the body. Well-preserved, lateral diverticula originate from the anterolateral extremity of alimentary canal by a transverse (pl. Ⅲ, fig. 5) or forward obliquely directed trunk situated a little behind the midlength of the anterior shield (pl. Ⅳ, fig. 1); this trunk bifurcates into two branches, with one running forward and the other directing outward and backward; from these main divisions others originate and subdivide on the outer side. The subdivisions terminate blindly right within the margin of the anterior shield, unconnected by a marginal canal. These. lateral diverticula are limited to the area of the anterior shield. The posterior margin of the posterior shield is straight or slightly concave. This species differs from N. longicaudata in having well-preserved posterolateral and lateral spines on the anterior and posterior shield respectivoly. Length of its posterior shield is proportionally smaller tham that of N. longicaudata, and the posterior margin is straight or slightly concave instead of well rounded. In the shape of anterior shield, this species is very similar to N. spinifer Walcott, 1931 (Whittington, 1977, pl. 16, fig. 91), but differs from the latter in having a pair of larger posterior lateral spines and a straight or concave posterior margin on the posterior shield.The occurrence of Naraoia and-other nontrilobite arthropods from eastern Yunnan is of great significance for the further study of the Cambrian animal kingdom and palaeogeography on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. Broadly speaking, the Cambrian geology and palaeontology in Asia, especially in eastern Asia, are more intimately related to those in North America than in Western and Northern Europe. More detailed discussion and description of these two species of Naraoia will be published in another paper written in English.
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