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Advances in Microbiologically Mediated Dissolution of Metal Sulfides in Polymetallic Mines and Its Environmental Significance

LU Jian-jun 1 ,LU Xian-cai 1 ,WANG Rui-yong 2 ,WANG Ru-cheng 1 ,LI Juan 1 , ZHAO Xing-qing 1 ,XU Zhao-wen 1 ,HU Huan 1 ,HAN Xiao-dong 3 (1.State Key Lab for Mineral Deposit Research,Department of Earth Sciences,Nanjing University,N anjing 210093,China;2.College of Life Sciences,Nanjing University,Nanjing 210093,China;3 .College of Medicine,Nanjing University,Nanjing 210093,China)  
The dissolution of the metal sulfides in polymetallic mines not only produces acid mining drainage (AMD),but also releases the abundant heavy metals into the surroundings,which results in serious environmental contamination.Existing studies indicate that various microorganisms play important roles in the dissolution of minerals and in the release,transportation,precipitation and enrichment of heavy metals.In this papers,the new approaches on the mechanisms of microbiologically mediated dissolution of minerals,the interfacial processes between microbes and minerals,and the function of biofilms are summarized.The features of microbes community and species phylogeny are discussed.Furthermore,the microbiogeochemical cycles of the heavy metals released by the microbiological dissolution of metal sulfides and the influence of the heavy metals on the microbiological oxidation are reviewed.Finally,the potential applications of microorganisms in the remediation of contaminated environments are also addressed.
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