Full-Text Search:
Home|Journal Papers|About CNKI|User Service|FAQ|Contact Us|中文
《Guihaia》 2006-04
Add to Favorite Get Latest Update

Advances in sex identification of dioecious plants

LI Rui-li, LU Long-dou, GAO Wu-jun, LI Shu-fen, WANG Qiong ( College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China )  
Dioecious plants are playing an important role in elucidating the mechanism of plant sex determination and evolution. The studies of sex identification is of great significance both in theory and practice. This paper reviewed the research progress in recent fifteen years based on morphological,physiological,biochemical and molecular biological methods.Meanwhile,comments and prospectives were also given.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金项目资助(30370864)~~
【CateGory Index】: Q94-33
Download(CAJ format) Download(PDF format)
CAJViewer7.0 supports all the CNKI file formats; AdobeReader only supports the PDF format.
【References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 QU Yi-tao et al (Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036);Establishment and Optimization of RAPD-PCR System in Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2010-13
2 LI Hui-Min1, HUANG Xi-Yang1,2, GAO Cheng-Wei1, QIN Xin-Min1( 1.College of Life Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004, China; 2. Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuangzu Autonomous Region and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin 541006, China );Sex identification of Siraidia grosvenorii by isozyme analysis[J];Guihaia;2007-05
3 Li Guoping Yang Lusheng Department of Tea Science and Biology,Wuyi University,Wuyishan,354300;Comparative Analysis of Water-soluble Phenolic Substances and Oxidases Activity in the Male and Female Plant of Pistacia chinensis[J];Genomics and Applied Biology;2012-04
4 LI Xiao-Feng1,2*,WANG Zhi-Feng1,HUANG You-You1,WANG Bi-Xia1,CHEN Jian3(1.Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation,China West Normal University,Ministry of Education,Nanchong 637009,China;2.Agricultural Environment and Agriculture Product Quality Management Section,Zhangjiakou 075000,China;3.Administration for Sichuan Micang Mountains Nature Reserve,Guangyuan 628200,China);Inter-sexual difference of growth characteristic for Populus cathayana natural forests in the Xiaowutai Mountains[J];Guihaia;2013-03
5 WEI Su-ling,HUANG Zi-mei,YANG Hua,QIN Xin-min(College of Life Science,Guangxi Normal University,Guilin 541004,Guangxi,China);Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the RAPD Markers Related to Sex in Siraidia grosvenorii[J];Hubei Agricultural Sciences;2008-03
6 Guo Xuemin1 Gao Zhongming2 Liu Zhenlin3 Liang Lisong4 Wang Guixi4 (1. The Research Institute of Wild Plant Resources Application,Hebei Normal University of Science & Technology Qinhuangdao 066600; 2. Department of Mathematics and Physics,Hebei Normal University of Science & Technology Qinhuangdao 066600; 3. Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture,Hebei Normal University of Science & Technology Qinhuangdao 066600; 4. The Research Institute of Forestry,The Chinese Academy of Forestry Beijing 100091);Comparative Anatomy of Vessel Elements in Staminate and Pistillate Plants of Fraxinus pennsylvanica[J];Scientia Silvae Sinicae;2010-08
7 FAN Jian-ping,DU Jun-hua,XU Long-hua,ZHANG Wen-jing,DU Lei(Department of Life and Geography,Qinghai Normal University,Xining 810008,China);Review of the way for discriminating between female and male individuals on the genus Hippophae(Elaeagnaceae)[J];Journal of Qinghai Normal University(Natural Science Edition);2012-01
8 JING Jian-zhou1,2, LI Dong-liang1, JIN Hong3, ZHANG Yong1, CAO Li-ming1 (1. College of Food and Biology Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002, China; 2. Henan Bioengineering Technology Research Center, Zhengzhou 450002, China;3. Shenzhen Fairylake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen 518004, China);Identification of a Sex-associated RAPD Marker in Cycas tanqingii D. Y. Wang[J];Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany;2007-03
9 MENG Xiang-cai1,YAN Bing-peng1,2,SUN Hui1,WANG Xi-jun1(1.Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine,Harbin 150040,China;2.Kang Yuan Pharmaceutical Corporation in Jiangsu,Lianyungang 222066,China);The Seasonal Accumulating Regularity on Effective Constituent Contents in Leaf Origin from Different Sexual Types of Acanthopanax senticosus[J];Lishizhen Medicine and Materia Medica Research;2011-01
10 LI Shan,CHENG Zhou,LI Yan,LIU Jing,YANG Xiao-ling,ZHU Yun-guo(School of Life Sciences and Technology,Tongji University,Shanghai 200092,China);Comparison of inclusions in female and male Trichosanthes kirilowii individuals[J];Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs;2008-02
【Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Ding Shiliu Zhu Xiuzheng Hong Ze (Horticultural Department of Anhui Agricultural University,Hefei 230036);Studies on Peroxidase Isoenzyme of Yangtao,Actinidia chinesis[J];JOURNAL OF ANHUI AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY;1997-04
2 Zhang Lusheng; Li Chuanyou; Jia Jianhang; Li Shaohua; Wang Bin; and XiaoXingguo (China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094; Institute of Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101);Making DNA Template in the Study of Sex Determination in Actinidia by AFLP[J];;1999-03
3 Tang Dongmei 1 ,Luo Shuping 1 ,Li Jiang,and Han Haitao 2 ( 1 Xinjiang Agricultural University,Ulumuqi,Xinjiang830052China;2 The Science Commission of Xinjiang Army Group,Ulumuqi ,Xingjiang830002China);Sex Identification of Pistachio by Using RAPD Analysis[J];Journal of Fruit Science;2003-02
4 Chen Xuesen, Deng Siusin, and Zhang Wencai (State Key Laboratory in Genetic Improvement of Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan Hubei 430070) Zhang Yanmin (Shandong Forest School );Studies on the Karyotype and Early Verification of the Female and Male Plants of Ginkgo biloba[J];JOURNAL OF FRUIT SCIENCE;1997-02
5 Fan Shuangxi; Song Xuefeng(Department of Horticulture, Beijing Agricultural College);Relationship between Sex and Isozymes of Peroxidase in Asparagus Plants[J];ACTA AGRICULTURAE BOREALL—SINICA;1995-02
6 Chen Xuesen;Deng Xiuxin;Zhang Wencai;Zhang Yanmin(Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070;Shandong Forestry School,Taian 271000);PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE CHROMOSOME NUMBER AND KARYOTYPE OF VARIETY RESOURCES OF Ginkgo biloba IN CHINA[J];JOURNAL HUAZHONG(CENTRAL CHINA) AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY;1996-06
7 Zhong Hui-wen Yang Zhong-han Zhu Guang-lian Cao Zong-xun(Department of Biology,Peking University,Beijing);PEROXIDASE ISOZYME PATTERN AS A BIOCHEMICAL TEST TO DISTINGUISH THE SEX OF INDIVIDUAL PLANT IN GINKGO BILOBA L.[J];Scientia Silvae Sinicae;1982-01
8 Guan Qiliang Yuan Miaobao(Department of Biology, Hangzhou University, Hangzhou 310012) Yu Zhonglu(Hangzhou Botanical Garden,Hangzhou 310013);EARLY DISCRIMINATION OF KARYOTYPE AND SEXUALITY FOR CHINESE TORREYA[J];Scientia Silvae Sinicae;1993-05
9 WANG Xiaomei, SONG Wenqin, LIU Song, LI Xiulan, CHEN Ruiyang (Department of Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071);AFLP MARKERS RELATED TO SEX IN A DIOECIOUS PLANT, GINKGO BILOBA L[J];Journal of Nankai University;2001-01
10 WANG Xiaomei, SONG Wenqin, LIU Song, CHEN Ruiyang (Department of Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071);RAPD MARKERS RELATED TO SEX LOCUS IN GINKGO BILOBA L[J];Journal of Nankai University;2001-03
【Co-citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 LIU Yu-yang1,YU Wen-quan1,HAN Chao1,ZHANG Jun-yan2,ZHANG Wen-qian1,ZHANG Li-li3,YU Xi-yan1* (1.State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology/College of Horticulture Science and Engineering,Shandong Agricultural University,Taian 271018,China;2.College of Agronomy,South China Agricultural University,Guangzhou 510642,China;3.Qinlou Street Office in Donggang District,Rizhao 276825,China);Effects of Ethephon on Joint Position of The First Female Flower,Number of Female Flowers and Fruit Characters of Muskmelon[J];Shandong Agricultural Sciences;2008-08
2 TIAN Yi et al (Department of Horticulture,Shenyang Agricultural University,Shenyang,Liaoning 110161);High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis and its Application in Analysis of Protein[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-21
3 ZHANG Jie et al (Genetics Section of Anhui Agricultural University,Hefei,Anhui 230036);Research Advance in Genetic Breeding and Species Identification of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-23
4 HONG Da et al (College of Life Science,Henan Normal University,Xinxiang,Henan 453007);Analysis of the Sex-linked Isozyme Marker in Cephalanoplos segetum(Bunge) Kitam[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-09
5 LU Feng-juan et al(Hebei Agricultural University,Baoding,Hebei 071001);Study on the Key Influencing Factors of Pear AFLP Technical System[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-30
6 Zhao Yunyun;Tian Ruling;Liou Jieping Department of Biology, Capital Normal University;Amino Acid Composition and Content in male and Female Ginkgo Biloba L. Leaves[J];;1993-03
7 WANG Yu-fu QIU Cai-sheng HAO Dong-mei CHEN Xin-bo LONG Song-hua DENG Xin YU Wen-Jing JIA Wan-qi(Institute of Bast Fiber Crops,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Changsha Hunan 410205);Production Status and Developmental Direction of Hemp in China[J];;2009-23
8 CHENG Yongan,ZHANG Enhui,OU Minggong,XU Zhongmin,WANG Yanni (College of Horticulture,Northwest Scitech University of Agriculture and Forestry,Yangling 712100);Effects of Three Chemicals on Sex Expression in Pumpkin[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural University;2003-03
9 Li Rong,Niu Jian-xin(Agricultural College of Shihezi University,Shihezi,Xinjiang 832003,China);AFLP molecular marker technique and its application in the studies of fruit trees[J];Northern Fruits;2006-05
10 YIN Hai-yan,FENG Zhen,MO Zhen-hua,SUN Qing-chun,YANG Ke-jia,ZHU Hong-mei(College of Forestry,Shandong Agricultural University,Tai'an,Shandong 271018,China);The Karyotypes of Female and Male Cedrus deodara[J];Northern Horticulture;2009-05
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 YU Chun-ming XIONG He-ping GUO Yun-ling TANG shou-wei Institute of Bast Fiber Crops,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Changsha 410006,China;Studies on Sexual Variants in Ramie[A];[C];2005
2 CHEN Jin-feng LOU Qun-feng CHEN Long-zheng GENG Hong LUO Xiang-dong (National Key Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095);AFLP and SCAR Molecular Markers linked to Gynoecious in Cucumis Sativus L.[A];[C];2004
3 LIU Li-wang,HOU Xi-lin,GONG Yi-qin,ZHANG Yu-ming,WANG Kai-rong,ZHENG Jun-fei (National key laboratory of crop genetics and germplasm enhancement,College of Horticulture,Nanjing Agri ,Univ,, Nanjing 210095; Jiangsu Seed Company,Nanjing 210013; Shanghai Municipal Seed Co,,Shanghai 200051);Application of Molecular Marker in Variety Identification and Purity Testing in Vegetable Crops[A];[C];2004
4 Jiang Zhengwang, Huang Hongwen, Zhang Zhonghui and Wang Shengmei (Wuhan Botanical Garden, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074. China);Current Situation of Conservation and Utilization of Germplasm Resources of Actinidia in China[A];[C];2004
5 Li Jianchao Liu Mengjun~* (Research Center of Chinese Jujube,Agricultural University of Hebei,Baoding China 071001);Application of RAPD and AFLP Markers on Dry Fruit[A];[C];2005
6 ;芦笋(Asparagus officinalis)雌雄株性别鉴定的研究进展[A];[C];2006
7 ;节瓜种子发芽过程中乙烯释放、保护性酶活性与植株花性别分化的相关分析[A];[C];2006
8 ;番木瓜分子标记研究进展[A];[C];2006
9 LU Bingguo (Biological and Chemical Engineering Department of Fulling Branch of Fujian Normal University 350300);application of Biotechnology in Cat' ica papaya L.[A];[C];2003
10 BAI Rui-xia; PENG Jian-ying (College of Horticulture, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, Hebei 071001 China);Application of DNA molecular markers on fruit tree genetics and breeding[A];[C];2004
【Co-references】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 WANG Qiang,LI Zhao-hui*,WANG Ru-gang,DONG Yu-kui(Plant Protection College of Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018);The spatial distribution pattern of Agonoscena cyphonopistae Li[J];Shandong Agricultural Sciences;2005-03
2 YU Wen-yan,LIU Shi-qi*,LIANG Qing-ling,HAO Shu-qin(College of Horticulture Science and Engineering,Shandong Agricultural University,State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology,Taian 271018,China);Comparison of Growth and Physiological Indices between Diploid and Tetraploid Garlic Plants[J];Shandong Agricultural Sciences;2008-02
3 ZHU Feng,YUE Hong, ZU En-feng,PANG Wei-qiang,LI Xiao-yin (Department of Applied Chemistry,Northwestern Polytechnical University,Xi’an 710072,China);The study and application of eucommia ulmoides gum[J];Journal of Anhui University(Natural Sciences);2005-03
4 Sheng Yuting(Nanjing agricultural University,JiangsuNanjing 210095);Advance of Plant Tissue Culture and Its Application[J];Anhui Agricultural Science Bulletin;2008-09
5 Xu Liying et al.(1 Wuhu Institute of Technology,Wuhu 241000,China;2 Life College of Anhui Normal University,Wuhu 241000,China);Study on Soilless Cultural of seedlings Technology of Trichosanthes Kkirilowii Maxim.[J];Anhui Agricultural Science Bulletin;2009-03
6 SONG Xian-jun et al (College of Agronomy,Shenyang Agricultural University,Shenyang,Liaoning 110161);Improvement of PAGE Silver Staining Method Used in Soybean SSR Marker[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-16
7 ZHAO Wei et al (College of Life Science and Technology,University of Electronic Science and Technology,Chengdu,Sichuan 610054);An Effective Method of DNA Extraction from Crassulaceae Plant[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-22
8 YANG Bin-bin et al(Department of Biology,Lishui College,Lishui,Zhejiang 323000);Effect of Spraying Different Concentration of Ethephon on Cucumber Yield and Agronomic Characters[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-02
9 HOU Xin-cun et al(Department of Horticulture,Tianjin Agricultural College,Tianjin 300384);Research Progress in Woody Energy Plant Pistacia chinensis[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-12
10 ZHANG Lü-ping et al(Research Institute for Fruit Resources of Karst Mountain Region,Guizhou University,Guiyang,Guizhou 550025);Research Progress of Anther Culture in Horticultural Plants[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-17
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 2 Hits
1 Gong Pengtao Zhang Xueli WangXiaoling Zhang Shilling LiDi Hainan Institute of Tropical Agricultural Resources, Sanya, 57202S;Plant Genetic Linkage Mapping and Molecular Markers[A];[C];2006
2 Zhang Xueli Zhang Shilling Gong Pengtao Hainan Institute of Tropical Agricultural Resources, Sanya, S7202S;Methods and Softwares in Plant Genetic Mapping[A];[C];2006
【Secondary References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 XIONG Yan-hui LU Xia-ying LIU Peng-fei MO Jun MO Sai-jun MO Ai-jun (Taojiang Agricultural Bureau in Hunan Province,Taojiang Hunan 413400);Development Advantages and Countermeasures of Snakegourd Industry in Taojiang County[J];Modern Agricultural Science and Technology;2011-18
2 LI Yong-xiang1,WANG Xian-guo2,CONG Li-li1,YANG Chun-hua1(1.Department of Grassland Science,Animal Science and Technology College,Sichuan Agricultural University,Ya'an, Sichuan Province 625014,China;2.Institute of Grassland Science,China Agricultural University,Beijing 100193,China);Zymogram Analysis of Different Sexual Buchloe dactyloides[J];Acta Agrestia Sinica;2012-03
3 MA Li-yuan,QI Guo-hui,LI Bao-guo,GUO Su-ping,LU Tie-bing(College of Forestry,Agricultural University of Hebei,Baoding 071000,China);Comparsion study of leaf protective enzyme activities and main substance contents of male and female Pistacia chinensis strees[J];Journal of Agricultural University of Hebei;2012-02
4 YANG Zhao-ping1,2,LIU Qin2,LI Zhi-jun1,2(1 The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps Key Laboratory of Production and Utilization of Biological Resources in Tarim Basin,Alar,Xinjiang 843300,China;2 College of Plant Science,Tarim University,Alar,Xinjiang 843300,China);Leaf Blade Comparative Anatomy between the Female and the Male of Populus euphratica Oliv.[J];Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica;2011-01
5 CHAI Yi-feng*,ZHU Zhen-yu and CHEN Xiao-fei(Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis,School of Pharmacy,Second Military Medical University,Shanghai 200433),Fenxi Shiyanshi,2010,29(9):78~122;Pharmaceutical analysis(I)[J];Chinese Journal of Analysis Laboratory;2010-09
6 Qu Chao 1 Sun Qun 1 Ding Zimian 2 Wang Jianhua 1 Sun Baoqi 1 1 College of Agronomy and Biotechnology,Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Genetic Improvement of Ministry of Agriculture,Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement,China Agricultural University,Beijing,100193;2 Institute of Medicinal Plant Development,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College,Beijing,100193;Optimization of ISSR-PCR System in Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim[J];Genomics and Applied Biology;2009-01
7 Xing Zhaobin * Long Yuehong Wu Peng He Shan Liang Nengsong Li Baocai College of Life Science, Hebei United University, Tangshan, 063000;Semi-quantitative RT-PCR Analysis of Key Enzyme Gene Expression Involved in Acanthopanax senticosus Saponin Biosynthesis[J];Genomics and Applied Biology;2011-06
8 LIU Li-Hua~1,MA Xiao-Jun~1,SUN Jing-Jing~2, QIN Jia-Ming~3,WEI Jian-He~1 (1.Institute of Medicinal Plant Development,China Academy Medicinal Science,Chinese Peking Union Medical Colledge,Beijing 100193,China;2.College of Science,Liaoning Technical University,Fuxin 123000, China;3.Guangxi Maize Research Institute,Nanning 530227,China);Establishment and optimization of SRAP reaction system in Siraitia grosvenorii[J];Guihaia;2009-06
9 ZHANG Yi-Zhong1,2,CHEN Qing-Fu1(1.Institute of Plant Genetics and Breeding,School of Biological Technology and Engineering,Guizhou Normal University,Guiyang 550001,China;2.Department of Environment and Life Science,Bijie College,Bijie 551700,China);Esterase isozyme on sprouting seeds of genus Fagopyrum[J];Guihaia;2011-02
10 ZHAO Yan-xia1; LUO You-qing1; ZONG Shi-xiang1; WANG Rong1; LUO Hong-mei2. 1 Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, 100083, P. R. China; 2 Experimental Center of Desert Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry , Dengkou, Inner Mongolia, 015200, P.R.China.;Comparison in leaf anatomical structure and drought resistance of different sex and varieties of sea buckthorn[J];Journal of Beijing Forestry University;2012-06
【Secondary Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Zhong Hui-wen Yang Zhong-han Zhu Guang-lian Cao Zong-xun(Department of Biology,Peking University,Beijing);PEROXIDASE ISOZYME PATTERN AS A BIOCHEMICAL TEST TO DISTINGUISH THE SEX OF INDIVIDUAL PLANT IN GINKGO BILOBA L.[J];Scientia Silvae Sinicae;1982-01
2 Zhu Daoyu Zhang Junhua(Deparrment of Horticulture, Henan Agricultural University,Zhengzhou 450002);Variation of Dioecism in Actinidia chinensis[J];ACTA AGRICULTURAE UNIVERSITATIS HENANENSIS;1995-01
3 Zhao Yunyun;Liu Jieping (Department of Biology, Beijing Teachers' College);Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics and Identification of the Sexes in Dioecious Plants[J];;1991-04
4 Li Rugang (Biotechnology Research Center, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081);Application of RAPD Markers to Identification of Apple Cultivars[J];;1997-01
5 Li Maoxue Department of Biology, Beijing Unfversity Chen Ruiyang Department of Biology, Nanhai University;A SUGGESTION ON THE STANDARDIZATION OF KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS IN PLANTS[J];Journal of Wuhan Botanical Research;1985-04
6 Ai Xin Zhu Lili Shu Lihui Tao Xiaoming He Guangcun(College of Life Sciences,Wuhan University Wuhan 430072);CORRELATION OF SEX EXPRESSION AND THREE OXIDASE ISOZYME IN CUCUMBER PLANT (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.)[J];JOURNAL OF WUHAN BOTANICAL RESEARCH;2000-03
7 WANG Xiao Mei SONG Wen Qin LI Xiu Lan CHEN Rui Yang (Department of Biology Nankai University Tianjin 300071);ANALYSIS OF GENOMIC DNA BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE IN A DIOECIOUS PLANT, GINKGO BILOBA[J];Chinese Journal of Coll Biology;2002-01
8 He Mei; Li Maoxue(College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871);Study in Female Plant Chromosome Ag-NOR of Ginkgo biloba[J];Hereditas(Beijing);1996-03
9 Wang Qiaomei,and Zeng Guangwen (Department of Horticulture,Zhejiang Agricultural University,Hangzhou 310029);The Effect of Phytohormones and Polyamines on Sexual Differen tiation of Momordica charantia[J];;1997-01
10 Tao Jun,Chen Peng,and She Xudong (Department of Horticulture,Agricultural College,and Yangzhou University,Yangzhou 225009);Studies on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Ginkgo[J];ACTA HORTICULTURAE SINICA;1999-03
©2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Knowledge Network Technology Co., Ltd.(Beijing)(TTKN) All rights reserved