Full-Text Search:
Home|Journal Papers|About CNKI|User Service|FAQ|Contact Us|中文
《Journal of Chemical Industry and Engineering(China)》 2007-07
Add to Favorite Get Latest Update

Dielectric-barrier discharge plasma characteristics and its application in chemical engineering

YANG Kuanhui,WANG Baowei,XU Genhui(Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology,School of Chemical Engineering & Technology,Tianjin University,Tianjin 300072,China)  
Dielectric-barrier discharge(DBD)is a typical non-equilibrium gas discharge with AC at low temperature and atmospheric pressure.This paper presents the characteristics of dielectric-barrier discharge plasma,mechanism of discharge,theoretical models,types of reactors and its problems.Its application in synthesis of chemical products,treatment of volatile organic compounds and car exhaust gases,material surface treatment,modification of catalyst,deposition film preparation,and the technology that DBD plasma-assisted catalysis is applied in environmental chemical engineering are summarized.The strong points and disadvantages of conventional methods used in these aspects are analyzed.The advantages of DBD plasma and catalysis can be improved through the catalysis-assisted non-thermal plasma technique.The DBD plasma technology has been considered as a potential new technology for its advantages of saving energy,reducing cost,safe operation and environmental protection.Some proposals on the development and prospect of the DBD plasma technology are provided.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金项目(20606023)~~
【CateGory Index】: TQ03
Download(CAJ format) Download(PDF format)
CAJViewer7.0 supports all the CNKI file formats; AdobeReader only supports the PDF format.
【References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 9 Hits
1 WANG Ai-guo,JIANG Xue-dong,HU Xiao-tu (Beijing Jiaotong University,Beijing 100044,China);Design of Power Supply for Wastewater Treatment by Non-thermal Plasma[J];Power Electronics;2009-02
2 Tang Lihua1,Ren Wanting2,Cheng Chunzu1,Li Xin2,Wang Rongmin1(1.Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province,Northwest Normal University,Lanzhou 730070;2.State Key Laboratory of Biobased Fiber Manufacturing Technology,China Textile Academy,Beijing 100025);Modification of PP non-woven fabric by dielectric barrier discharge plasma[J];China Synthetic Fiber Industry;2009-03
3 SUN Baomin,YIN Shui'e,XIAO Haiping,GAO Xudong,ZHOU Zhipei (Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control of Power Plant Equipment,Ministry of Education,North China Electric Power University,Beijing 102206,China);Characteristics of NO and SO_2 removal in dielectric barrier discharge plasma process[J];Journal of the Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China;2010-02
4 LI Yan,LIU Changjun (School of Chemical Engineering and Technology,Tianjin University,Tianjin 300072,China);Effects of DBD plasma on morphological control of Cu(NO_3)_2·3H_2O crystallization from aqueous solution[J];CIESC Journal;2010-10
5 Xu Qing1,2,Li Jun1,Zheng Zhang-jing1,Ling Chang-ming1(1.Engineering College of Guangdong Oucean University,Zhanjiang 524025,China;2.College of Environmental Science and Engineering,South China University of Technology,Guangzhou 510006,China);Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma and Its Application in Surface Modification of Carbon Materials[J];Energy Conservation Technology;2010-05
6 WANG Tao1,SUN Baomin1,XIAO Haiping1,DU Xu1,ZENG Juying1,DUAN Erpeng1,RAO Su2(1 Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment,Ministry of Education,North China Electric Power University,Beijing102206,China;2 China CAMC Engineering Co.,Ltd.,Beijing100080,China);Effect of gas composition on NO_x removal in dielectric barrier discharge reactor[J];CIESC Journal;2012-11
7 ZHENG Jing;HUANG Youguang;HUANG Guoqiang;School of Chemical Engineering and Technology,Tianjin University;;Research progress of plasma hydrogenation of silicon tetrachloride[J];Chemical Industry and Engineering Progress;2015-06
8 HU Shuanghui,LV Yijun,YAN Wenjuan,WANG Baowei (Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology,School of Chemical Engineering and Technology,Tianjin University,Tianjin 300072,China);Process for Conversion of Methane to C_2 Hydrocarbons in Gliding Arc Discharge Plasma Reactor[J];Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry;2013-01
9 HU Ya-qing;ZHU Yong-jun;LV Yong-kang;School of Chemical and Chemical Engineering,Shanxi Datong University;Key laboratory of Coal Science and Technology,Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province,Taiyuan University of Technology;;Influencing factors for removal of nitrogen oxides by dielectric barrier discharge reactor[J];Modern Chemical Industry;2014-07
【Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 RENChun-sheng~*,YUHong,ZHANGJia-liang,WANGDe-zhen,MATeng-caiDalian Univ. of Technol., Dalian 116024, China );Surface energy modification of polyethylene by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)[J];Journal of Dalian University of Technology;2004-01
2 HAN Rui-ping,YANG Lai,GAO Bo-yang,WANG Dong-sheng,ZHANG Xiu-ling (Lab of Plasma,Dalian University,Dalian 116622,China);The Progress in Study of Hazardous Air Pollutants Removal by Pulse Corona Plasma[J];Low Temperature and Specialty Gases;2004-02
3 LING Yi-ming,XU Jian-jun (Dept.of Electronic Engineering,Southeast University,Nanjing 210018,China);Probe Diagnosis of Electron Temperature and Electron Energy Distribution in Dielectric Barrier Silent Discharge[J];Acta Electronica Sinica;2001-02
4 ;The Progress on Study of Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds by Discharge Plasma[J];High Voltage Engineering;2002-03
5 ;Effect of Power Supply Frequency on Dielectric-barrier Discharge[J];High Voltage Engineering;2002-11
6 ;Application Research of Dielectric Barrier Discharge to Produce Plasma[J];High Voltage Engineering;2002-S1
7 HE Zhenghao,DING Liuhua,DENG Dong,QU Jingjing,LI Jin,HU Hui,YE Qizheng(Huazhong University of Science and Technology,Wuhan 430074,China);Application of Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Decomposing Formaldehyde Gas[J];High Voltage Engineering;2005-12
8 LI Xue chen,YIN Zeng qian,FENG De kui,DONG Li fang (College of Physics Science and Technoiogy,Hebei University,Baoding 071002,China);Study on the Characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure[J];Journal of Hebei University(Natural Science Edition);2002-01
9 Zhang Xiangyu, Li Zhenhua (State Key Lab of C1 Chemistry and Technology,School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University,Tianjin, 300072);Progress in Catalyst of Partial Oxidation of Methane to Syngas[J];Chemical Industry and Engineering Progress;2002-12
10 ;Study on the Low Temperature Plasma Technology in Disposal Wastes[J];ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SCIENCE;1997-05
【Co-citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Wang Yuhua,Hou Zhongyu,Hui Bing,Xu Dong (National Key Laboratory of Micro/Nano Fabrication Technology,Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of Minstry of Education,Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology,Shanghai Jiao Tong University,Shanghai 200240,China);Characteristics of Direct Current Dielectric Barrier Discharge in a Micro Electrode System with Carbon Nanotubes[J];Micronanoelectronic Technology;2011-01
2 ZHANG Shao-jun~1,HOU Li-an~2,WANG You-jun~3(1.3 Second Artillery Engineering Institute,Xi'an 710025,China;2.Engineering Design & research Institute of the Second Artillery Corps,Beijing 100011,China);Progress in Study of Air Pollution Control by Utilizing Cold Plasma[J];Environmental Science and Management;2006-05
3 Fang Fang,Qin Yan,Wang Yonghui(College of Environmental Science and Engineering,Donghua University,Shanghai 201620,China);Research Progresses on Degradation Technologies of Benzene and Its Derivatives in Aqueous Phase[J];Environmental Science and Management;2007-12
4 OUYANG Ji-ting, CAO Jing, HE Feng (School of Science, Beijing Institute ofTechnology, Beijing 100081, China);The Breakdown Characteristics of Coplanar Dielectric Barrier Discharge[J];Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology;2005-S1
5 MIAO Jin-song, XU Hong-li, OUYANG Ji-ting (School of Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China);Removal of Formaldehyde Using Non-Thermal Plasmas Technology[J];Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology;2005-S1
6 LI Duan, LIU Ming-hui, WU Yan, LI Guo-feng, WANG Ning-hui, LIU Jiang-jiang (Institute of Electrostatics and Special Power, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024, China);Removing Toluene and Chlorobenzene by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Introduced Monopolar Pulse-Power Supply[J];Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology;2005-S1
7 GUO Yu-fang, YE Dai-qi, CHEN Ke-fu (College of Resource Science and Paper-Making Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China; College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China);Research on Toluene Removal Behavior by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Under Different Background Gases[J];Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology;2005-S1
8 OUYANG Ji-ting, MIAO Jin-song (School of Science, Beijing Institute ofTechnology, Beijing 100081, China);Ozone Synthesis in Oxygen in Surface Discharge[J];Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology;2005-S1
9 HU You-ping1,2,LI Ge-sheng2,MIAO Jin-song3,YAN Li1,FAN Shi-dong2,GAO Xiao-hong2(1.Institute of Materials & Technology,Dalian Maritime University,Dalian,Liaoning 116026,China;2.School of Science,Wuhan Institute of Technology,Wuhan,Hubei 430063,China;3.School of Science,Beijing Institute of Technology,Beijing 100081,China);A Study on the Characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Using Bevel-Gear-to-Plane Electrodes[J];Transactions of Beijing Institute of Technology;2008-11
10 SUN Xiao1,ZHANG Yue-ting2,3,ZHANG Hua-li2,3,DONG Xiao-na2,3,SHI Lei2,3,WANG Shi-qing2,3,(1.JIA SHIBO Food Co.,Ltd,Shandong 262200,China;2.College of Food Science and Engineering,Qingdao Agricultural University,Qingdao 266109,China;3.Modern Agricultural Quality and Safety Engineering Key Laboratory,Qingdao 266109,China);Research Status and Prospect of Plasma Used in Food Sterilization[J];Storage & Process;2010-06
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 WANG Bao-wei, YANG Kuan-hui, YAN Yi-gang, LIU Yong-wei, XU Gen-hui (Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering & Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072,China);Studies on Conversion of Methane Through Dielectric-barrier Discharges[A];[C];2007
2 Li Hao,WanYizao,He Fang~*,Huang Yuan,WangYulin,Zhou Fugang (School of Materials Science and Engineering,Tianjin University,Tianjin 300072);Plasma Surface Treatment of Three-Dimensional Braided Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites[A];[C];2008
3 LI Jian-xiong,LI Yang-yang,LIU An-hua (School of Materials Science & Engineering,South China University of Technology,Guangzhou 510641,China);Study on surface structure and properties of materials modified with excimer vacuum ultraviolet[A];[C];2010
4 He Tieshi Zhou Zhengfa Xu Weibing Dept.of Polymer Science and Engineering Hefei University of Technology 193,Tunxi Rd,Hefei 230009 Anhui P.R.China;Application of atmosphere pressure plasma in waste—water decomposition[A];[C];2007
5 OUYANG Ji-ting CAO Jing HE Feng (School of Science,Beijing Institute of Technology,Beijing 100081,China);The Breakdown Characteristics of Coplanar Dielectric Barrier Discharge[A];[C];2005
6 MIAO Jin-song XU Hong-li OUYANG Ji-ting (School of Science,Beijing Institute of Technology,Beijing 100081,China);Removal of Formaldehyde Using Non-Thermal Plasmas Technology[A];[C];2005
7 LI Duan LIU Ming-hui WU Yan LI Guo-feng WANG Ning-hui LIU Jiang-jiang (Institute of Electrostatics and Special Power,Dalian University of Technology,Dalian,Liaoning 116024,China);Removing Toluene and Chlorobenzene by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Introduced Monopolar Pulse-Power Supply[A];[C];2005
8 GUO Yu-fang~1 YE Dai-qi~2 CHEN Ke-fu~1 (1.College of Resource Science and Paper-Making Engineering,South China University of Technology,Guangzhou 510640,China;2.College of Environmental Science and Engineering,South China University of Technology,Guangzhou 510640,China);Research on Toluene Removal Behavior by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Under Different Background Gases[A];[C];2005
9 OUYANG Ji-ting MIAO Jin-song (School of Science,Beijing Institute of Technology,Beijing 100081,China);Ozone Synthesis in Oxygen in Surface Discharge[A];[C];2005
10 HU You-ping HA Yuan-xin (Department Of Physics,Wuhan university of technology);On the Surface Treatment of Carbon Fiber by Non-Plasma in the 0.08MPa[A];[C];2006
【Co-references】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Xiao Hua 1, Zhou Rongfeng 2 (1.2National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092);Present Situation and Development of Micro-Polluted Water Treatment[J];North Environment;2005-01
2 Luo Jingyuan Wang Mingsheng (Department of Chemistry);The Electrodeposition of Amorphous FeNiP Alloy Films[J];Journal of University of Science and Technology Beijing;1990-05
3 DONG Li-fang, LI Shu-feng, LIU Fu-cheng, LIU Feng, LIU Shu-hua (College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei 071002, China);Influence of Gas Flow on the Discharge Characteristics in Dielectric Barrier Discharge[J];Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology;2005-S1
4 GUO Yu-fang, YE Dai-qi, CHEN Ke-fu (College of Resource Science and Paper-Making Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China; College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China);Research on Toluene Removal Behavior by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Under Different Background Gases[J];Journal of Beijing Institute of Technology;2005-S1
5 WANG Jun, ZHANG Jing\|yi, CHEN Shuang\|ji (College of Applied Sciences and Humanities of Beijing Union University, Beijing\ 100083, China);Indoor Air Pollution—Total Volatile Organic Compounds Pollution[J];Journal of Beijing Union University;2002-03
6 CHEN Hui-min(Shanghai University of Engineering Science,Shanghai 201620,China);Application and Development of Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in the Material Surface Modification[J];Surface Technology;2008-05
7 XU li-li QI xiao-feng CHEN yu-qing(School of Materials and Engineering,Shandong Institute of Light Industry,Jinan 250353);Research and Application Progress of Nano-TiO_2 Antibacterial Materials[J];Shandong Ceramics;2007-05
8 LIN Yun-qin~1,LIN He-jian~2,WANG De-han~1(1.Department of Paper-making and Environmental Engineering,South China University ofAgriculture,Guangzhou 510642,China;2.Sino Environment Engineering Co.Itd,Guangzhou 510655,China);Advanced Cold Plasma and Its Application in Treatment of VOCs[J];Urban Environment & Urban Ecology;2005-05
9 Wu, Suo-chuan(Department of Chemistry, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210024);TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED REDUCTION OF CO-LOADED ZSM-5 ZEOLITES[J];Chinese Journal of Catalysis;1993-03
10 WU Shihua, HUANG Weiping, ZHANG Shoumin, WEI Wei, ZHANG Shuhong, ZHENG Xiucheng (Department of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China);Preparation of Highly Dispersed Au/TiO_2 Catalysts for Low Temperature CO Oxidation by Solvated Metal Atom Impregnation Method[J];Chinese Journal of Catalysis;2000-05
【Secondary References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Wang Zhuoling1,2 Zhang yi3 Zhang Jinshan1(1.Lanzhou University of technology,Lanzhou Guangsu 730050,China;2.Key Laboratory of Advanced Control for Industrial Processes in Gansu Province,Lanzhou Gansu 730000,China;3.Lanzhou 68054 forces,Xi'an Shaanxi 710061,China);Research on the Pulse Power of the Sewage Treatment Based on Streamer Discharge Control[J];Electrical Automation;2011-06
2 WANG Xing-gui1,2,ZHAO Jin-shan1(1.Lanzhou University of Technology,Lanzhou Gansu 730050,China; 2.Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Control for Industrial Processes,Lanzhou Gansu 730050,China);Research on pulse power for the sewage treatment[J];Chinese Journal of Power Sources;2012-03
3 WU Hai-xia~1,JI Bao-jian~2 (Nanjing University of Technology,Nanjing 211816,China);Research on High Voltage DC Power Supply for Waste Water Treatment by Non-thermal Plasma[J];Power Electronics;2013-05
4 ZHANG Jian;SUN Tianyu;WANG Qinyang;REN Jianxing;School of Energy and Mechanical Engineering,Shanghai University of Electric Power;;The Mechanism of Flue Gas De-NO_x Based on Plasma Ionization Technology and the Influence of DBD Electrode Configuration Parameter on De-NO_x Effects[J];Journal of Shanghai University of Electric Power;2015-04
5 GUAN Yongchuan,LI Wei,ZHANG Jinli(School of Chemical Engineering and Technology,Tianjin University,Tianjin 300072,China);Research progress in the green synthesis process of hydrogen peroxide[J];Chemical Industry and Engineering Progress;2012-08
6 SUN Yan-zhou,CUI Zhi-yong,WEI Lin-lin(School of Electrical Engineering and Automation,Henan Polytechnic University,Jiaozuo 454000,Henan,China);Numerical simulation of the coaxial tube of dielectric barrier discharge[J];Journal of Henan Polytechnic University(Natural Science);2012-02
7 WANG Zhuo-ling1,2,ZHAO Jin-shan3(1.College of Electrical and Information Engineering of Lanzhou University of Technology,Lanzhou 730050,China.2.Key Laboratory of Advanced Control for Industrial Process of Gansu Province,Lanzhou 730000,China.3.Hualuhengsheng Chemical Industry Group Co.Ltd.,Dezhou 251500,China);Research of Fuzzy Control of Reactor of Pulse Power Supply[J];Industry and Mine Automation;2011-09
8 WANG Tao1,SUN Baomin1,XIAO Haiping1,DU Xu1,ZENG Juying1,DUAN Erpeng1,RAO Su2(1 Key Laboratory of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment,Ministry of Education,North China Electric Power University,Beijing102206,China;2 China CAMC Engineering Co.,Ltd.,Beijing100080,China);Effect of gas composition on NO_x removal in dielectric barrier discharge reactor[J];CIESC Journal;2012-11
9 CHEN Jie1,2,WANG Qiannan1,YE Zhiping2,SHAO Zhenhua2,SHI Yao2(1I nstitute of Environment Science &Engineering,Hangzhou Dianzi University,Hangzhou310018,Zhejiang,China;2I ndustrial Ecology and Environment Research Institute,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou310027,Zhejiang,China);Wipe out of stench from landfill leachate by non-thermal plasma combined with blow-off[J];CIESC Journal;2012-11
10 ZHAO Hualong1,ZHAO Binran1,YAN Xiaoliang1,LIU Yuan2, WANG Yong2,LIU Changjun1(1Advanced Nanotechnology Center,School of Chemical Engineering and Technology,Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072,China;2National Institute of Clean-and-Low-Carbon Energy,Beijing 102209,China);Ni/SiO_2 catalyst for CO methanation with support treated by dielectric barrier discharge plasma[J];CIESC Journal;2013-01
【Secondary Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Cui Chengmin;Kang Junxing;Fu Xinping1) (Department of Material Engineering, Beijing Institute of Clothing Technology, Beijing 100029)2) (Beijing Municipal Center for Hygiene and Epidemic Control, Beijing 100013);Determination of Micro Amount Formaldehyde by Spectrophotometry[J];JOURNAL OF BEIJING INSTITUTE OF CLOTHING;2000-01
2 ZHANG Zhaobin, YU Changchun, SHEN Shikong(CNPC Key Laboratory of Catalytsis, Petroleum University, Beijing 102200, China);Partial Oxidation of CH_4 to Syngas on La_2O_3 Promoted Ni/MgAl_2O_4[J];CHINESE JOURNAL OF CATALYSIS;2000-01
3 LI Chunyi 1* , YU Changchun 2, SHEN Shikong 2 (1 State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, University of Petroleum, Dongying (Shandong) 257062, China; 2 Catalytic Key Laboratory of CNPC, University of Petroleum, Beijing 102200, China);Studies on the Reasons for Carbon Deposition over Ni/Al_2O_3 Catalyst in Partial Oxidation of CH_4 to Syngas with TPO Technique[J];Chinese Journal of Catalysis;2001-04
4 YU Lin 1* , YUAN Shuhua 2, TIAN Jiuying 2, WANG Sheng 2, CHU Wei 3 (1 Department of Chemistry, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, China; 2 College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China; 3 Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistr;Partial Oxidation of Methane to SyngasEffects of Support and Promoter on Catalytic Performance of Ni/A_2O_3 Catalyst[J];Chinese Journal of Catalysis;2001-04
5 Lu Yong, Deng Cun, Ding Xuejia, Shen Shikong (State Key Laboratory of Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000);CATALYTIC PARTIAL OXIDATION OF METHANE TO SYNGAS OVER Ni/Al 2O 3 CATALYST[J];CHINESE JOURNAL OF CATAL YSIS;1996-01
6 Zhang Yuhong, Xu Ling, Sheng Shishan, Chen Hengrong, Liu Shenglin, Xiong Guoxing (State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023);NiO/ γ Al 2O 3 CATALYSTS PREPARED BY SOL GEL METHOD FOR PARTIAL OXIDATION OF METHANE TO SYNGAS[J];CHINESE JOURNAL OF CATALYSIS;1998-06
7 Gao Taiyin,Xin Yibing,Liang Jianyi;Experimental Study of Soot Oxidation in Silent Discharge[J];JOURNAL OF NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY;1997-01
8 ZHANG Zhi tao 1, XIAN Yu ze 1, YANG Bo 2, WANG Yan 2 (1.Northeastern University,Shenyang 110006; 2.Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026,China);Development of IGBT Inverter Power Supply Used in Strong Ionization Discharge of Dielectric Barrier[J];Power Electronics;2001-05
9 Xu Chuangxiang,Liu Fuyi (Electrical Eng.College of Xian Jiaotong University,Xian 710049,China);Advances of Engineering Dielectrics in 20th Century And Discussing the Development Focus at 21st Century[J];Journal of Electrical & Electrouic Engineering Education;2000-04
10 WU Zu-liang, ZHOU Yong-ping, GAO Xiang, et al.;The Study on Discharge Plasma Treating VOCs[J];Power System Engineering;2003-04
©2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Knowledge Network Technology Co., Ltd.(Beijing)(TTKN) All rights reserved