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Chemical characteristics of acid rain under the representative interaction among sea,land and anthropogenic activities in the coastal area of Qingdao

XING Jianwei;SONG Jinming;YUAN Huamao;LI Xuegang;LI Ning;KANG Xuming;WANG Qidong;Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences,Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences;Function Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences,Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology;  
As one of the most seriously suffered cities from acid rain in the north of China,Qingdao and its coastal area is typical for revealing the formation mechanism of acid rain under therepresentative interactions among sea,land and anthropogenic activities.In this paper,the chemical characteristics of acid rain in Qingdao coastal area were systematically summarized via the current status and variation,the formation mechanisms and its affecting factors,and the origins of acid/alkaline components in rainwater.The results indicated that the acidity and frequency of acid rain had been decreasing since 1981 but enhanced again from 2006,and the type of acid rain changed from "sulfuric acid"to "sulfuric-nitric acid mixture".The emissions of SO_2 and NOxfrom the local anthropogenic activities,long-range transport of external atmospheric pollutants,and dimethylsulfide(DMS) released from marine planktons are the three major sources of acidic substances in the air of Qingdao coastal area.Meanwhile, concentrations and emission intensity of atmospheric acidic precursors,contents of buffer or alkaline substances as well as the changeable meteorological conditions are the three primary factors that control the formation of acid rain in this region.In the rainwater,the acidic components are mainly anthropogenic,but alkaline components are from crustal sources.The aerosol originated from sea salt may exert a dilution effect on the acidity of rainwater to a certain degree.Several suggestions for further studies on acid rain in Qingdao coastal area were put forward as follows:(1) to focus on the dynamic variation of p H in rainwater and its interaction with atmospheric suspended particles;(2) to focus on the combined effects of multiple pollutants of weak organic acids with low molecular weight,heavy metals and organic pollutants in acid rain;(3) to optimize the acid deposition models for accurately analyzing the contributions of different sources of acidic components in rainwater;(4) to strengthen the studies on other forms of acid deposition such as fog,dew and frost and their fluxes.Further studies on the geochemical characteristics of acid rain in Qingdao coastal areas are not only beneficial to getting a deeper insight into the formation mechanism as well as the ecological environmental effects of air pollution and acid deposition under the interactions among sea,land and anthropogenic activities in the developed eastern China coastal areas,but could also provide theoretical basis on scientific strategies of prevention and control of acid rain.
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