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Particle and Gaseous Pollutant Levels and Sources in the Late Fall and Early Winter in Ji'nan City

SUN Yu-wei,ZHOU Xue-hua,YUAN Qi,MA Qiang,ZHOU Sheng-zhen,XU Zheng,MA Yu-jie Environment Research Institute,Shandong University,Ji'nan 250100,China  
Comprehensive monitoring and analysis of PM2.5,black carbon(BC) and gaseous pollutants(SO2,NOx,NO,NO2 and CO) were carried out in Ji'nan City,Shandong Province,from 23 November to 7 December 2009.During the monitoring period,the average values of ρ(PM2.5),φ(SO2) and φ(NOx) were 171 μg/m3,54.3×10-9 and 107×10-9,respectively.φ(SO2) was comparable to the daily value of China's National Air Quality Standard,while φ(NOx) was 2.2 times higher than its corresponding standard.ρ(PM2.5) was 4.89 times higher than the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard(35 μg/m3).ρ(PM2.5),φ(SO2) and φ(NOx) during pollution episodes were 222 μg/m3,74.4×10-9 and 158×10-9,respectively,which were 1.78,1.67 and 1.77 times higher than those during non-pollution days.On both pollution and non-pollution days,SO2 was mainly from coal-fired emissions.However,during the pollution episode from November 25th to 26th,NOx,BC and PM2.5 were primarily from vehicle exhaust emissions.During the episodes,pollutants in the sampling site were from local sources as well as transported in by wind from the industrial district in the northeast part of Ji'nan City.During the pollution incident from December 1st to 2nd,winds were mostly calm,and the pollutants accumulated.The main sources of NOx and BC were vehicle exhaust emissions.Besides primary sources,part of the PM2.5 was probably from secondary pollution.On the non-pollution days,NOx and BC were mainly from vehicle exhaust emissions,part of NOx was possibly from coal-fired emissions,and PM2.5 was mainly originated from primary sources.
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