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《Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae》 1981-01
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Ma Shi-jun (Researeh Centre of Ecology, Aeademia Sinica)  
This paper deals with a brief discussion on ecological rules of ecosystem which can be used in the design of environmental management. The relationship between ecological rules and economic principles has also been compared correspondingly. Ecosystems act as functional unit of biosphere constructed by the biotic community and the geographical environment under the effect of climatic factors. Regeneration which is of transformation between inorganic materials and organisms is the basic function of ecosystems themselves. During the developing process of ecosystem, there are two stages with economic significance, as the stage of maximum net productivity and the stage of equilibrium of the whole system. Both of these two stages consist of the regulating process between structure and function as well as the distributing mechanism of material and energy conforming with economic principle. On the basis of simplified optimal structure, to promote the efficiencies of material circulation and energy transformation which may result in increase of net productivity of the systems will be the functional process that may be applied simulately in the management systems of industry and agriculture. On the other hand, to maintain stability of material and energy flow in the metabolic process of the systems by regulating structure and function will be the essential in modeling the systems of environmental protection. The compartmental model of social-economic-ecosyste m as shown in Fig. 2 is a combination of complex systems of industry, agriculture and natural ecosystem which has connections with characteristics of above-mentioned two important stages. In order to meet requirement of production system of industry or agriculture, it is the highest productivity, but for the whole complex system it ought to regulate the sub-systems to facilitate the whole system going to be stable. Such type of system may be named as social-economic-ecological compound system which combines natural open system with artificial closing cyclic systems. When looking forward to the future, it is possibly the model of environmental management which suits and fits to the modern economic society with high-speed developing potentiality.
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