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《Hunan Geology》 1985-03
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THE FEATURES,GENESIS AND UTILIZATION OF UNDERGROUND HOT WATER OF HUNAN PROVINCE

Li Zuohai (Institute of Geology of Hunan,China)  
158 spots of underground hot water have been discovered in Hunan Province, most of which are typical of low temperature (40℃) with the exception of two spots of high temperature (the highest up to 92.9℃). The total drainage of the underground hot water is 8828.78 cubic meters per hour. Very many spots of underground hot water are found in carbonate rocks and its occurrences are controlled remarkably by magmatic rocks and the structures (deep faults and folds). The lithology and structure mentioned above may be con- sidered to be the three major features in the distribution of the underground hot water of Hunan. Different from that of the normal temperature water, the hydrogeochemistry of the underground hot water is characterized by weak mineralization and being a kind of alkaline water with medium-low hardness. part of the hot water con- tains some minor elements as F, Sr, Soluble silica, Ra and Rn and that in 19 spots the water may be classified as ore fluids which are worthy of further exploi- tation, The quality of water is in close relationship with the wall rocks, and the volatile components derived from deep crustal magma are detected in the hot water. According to the structural patterns, burial conditions and heat sources of the hot water area, the underground hot water of Hunan can be classified into four types of genesis, namely, the type of water heated up by the heat developed from geothermal gradient; heat conducted by deep faults; heat conducted by deep faults and from residual magma; heat conducted by deep faults and from residual magma and radioactivity. The latter three types are more significant and the formation are controlled mainly by the deep fault structures. The underground hot water in Hunan Province has been used in generate elec- tricity, medical treatment, agriculture, industry, daily life and etc.. It has great potential of exploitation and utiliaztion.
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