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《Hunan Geology》 1993-S1
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DEEP STRUCTURE IN HUNAN

Rao Jiarong Wang Jiheng Cao Yizhong (Hunan Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration)  
According to data of explosion earthquake, magnetotelluric sounding, geothermal heat flow, regional gravitation and magnetism surveying, and gravitational and magnetic measur-ing by satellite, and on the bases of the theory of plate tectonics we have discussed the deep structure and mineralization in Hunan. A deduced map showing the lithosphere-subcrustal structure in Hunan is made and the existence of Southern China microplate and Yangtze mi-croplate has been prooved, which are conspicuously distinguishable from each other in the structural characteristic of lithosphere. Yangtze microplate is a stable crust with thick shell and mantle and relatively high temperature, density and seismic wave speed. The rigid upper mantle block occurs in large scale within this plate. As for Southern China microplate, it be-longs to a Kind of crust with thin shell and mantle, and lower temperature, density and seis-mic wave speed. The upper mantle within this plate is plastic and increases its thickness greatly to 300 km at the wedged subduction zone. To recognize the deep-seated faults 10 geo-physic criteria are summed up on the basis of geophysic information from deep parts of the two plates. By these criteria we have divided three orders of deep-seated fault zones in which 3 are lithospheric faults, 12 Moho-faults and 34 basement faults. Now we firmly believe that Chengbu-Taojiang-Huitang-Liuyang lithosphere fault is a part of the deep subduction-collision suture line of two plates in Hunan province and we put forth a new concept, i. e., the chain-type subduction-collision model for the paleoplates in Southest China. The deep structure in Hunan can be divided, by the geological masses and blocks within the plates, into 2 primary units, 4 secondary units and 8 third ones. Large and ultra-large size deposits,thermal water, earthquakes and sedimentation are all controlled by these deep structures. The joint suture zones between the structural blocks, and the deep-seated faults become the centres for the concentration of ore materials and the formation of deposits and they are also the zones along which thermal water and earthquake centres distribute. Qianyang-Anhua-Ningxiang arc zone and Changsha-Anhua-Yuanling-Changde delta area are important prospective region for searching primary diamond and gold deposits. Copper and gold deposits occur mainly along Taojiang-Chengbu paleo-Subduction-collision zone; Jiangyung-Leiyang-Hengyang-Zhuzhou-Liuyang deep-seated fault, the copper polymetallic deposits and Xinghua-Dayishan-Chengzhou active zone of magmatism, the mineralization of Pb. Zn. Au, Cu, W, Sn.The NW trending. transform fault of Changde-Anjiang is the main fracture zone controlling thermal water with high temperature and the destructive earthquakes above 6 magnitude on Richter scale. But in the middle of Hunan crust there exists widely a ductile layer. i. e., the quake-reduced layer with lower seismic wave speed and electric resistande. This part of crust in Hunan is relatively stable and it is little possible to produce large scal earthquakes there.
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