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《Oceanologia Et Limnologia Sinica》 1964-01
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A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON THE APPLICATION OF USING T-S DIAGRAMS FOR A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE WATERMASSES IN THE SHALLOW WATER AREA

MAO HAN-LEE, REN YUN-WU AND WAN KOU-MIN(Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica)  
In this article, a preliminary investigation on the application of using T-S Diagrams for a quantitative analysis of the watermasses in the shallow water area has been made. Watermasses of Summer type in the region of the Southern Yellow Sea and the northern part of the East China Sea (37°-28°N) have been selected for this investigation. The main body of this paper consists of three sections.In the first section, the method employed in this paper is presented. For the study of the simultaneous mixing of four watermasses, two graphical methods have been available, i.e. the so-called "method of two sets of mixing triangles' " suggested by Timofeev and the "method of mixing quadrilateral'" employed by Miller. In this paper, an algebraic method is proposed. Based on the well-known "linear and inverse ratio" relationship (advance by Jacobsen) and some reasonable assumptions (stipulated by us), three sets of algebraic equations have been formulated and formal solutions of these equations obtained. For the convenience of practical conputations, a set of graphs have been constructed.The second section deals with the determination of the "original water types". On account of the utmost importance of the correctness of these determinations and also of the complex nature of the watermasses in our selected area, great cares have been exercised in every respect on the determination of the "original water types". Hundreds of T-S curves representing every subarea and every watermass have been drawn and their shapes detailedly compared, charcteristic features of different watermasses have been carefully examined, serval of Stockman's seven rules of "mixing triangle" have been properly applied, etc. It is found that six different "original water types" (representing six different watermasses) can be recognized, i.e. (1) The (Continental) Coastal Water, (2) The Yellow Sea (Summer) Cold Water, (3) The Kuroshio Surface Water, (4) The Kuroshio Subsurface Water, (5) The Kuroshio Central Water, and (6) The Kuroshio Lower Water. Among these six watermasses, the first four (1-4) can mix with one another simultaneously, but the last two (5-6) can't, they can only mix with each other and the (Kuro- shio) Central Water (5), may also with the (Kuroshio) Subsurface Water (4).In the third section, the essential results found by us are briefly discussed. Dozens of charts, diagrams, and graphs showing lines of equal percentage of each of the six "original water types" have been presented. Line of 50% of any "original water type" is taken as its boundary, areas containing more than 75% of any "original water type" are considered as "core zones", areas containing less than 50% of any "original water type" are defined as "mixed zones". The nature and characteristic features of these six watermasses have been briefly described, and their general distributions properly outlined. Finally, the general arrangement of these six watermasses in the area studied has been reviewed, and the occurrence of certain peculiar features on the distributions of temperature and salinity has been ascribed to some kinds of movements of these wter-masses (for examples, upwelling, wedge-in, etc.).Results of this investigation agree satisfactorily with those obtained by qualitative analysis of the distributions of temperature, salinity, disolved oxygen and phosphate, etc. in the same area and same season. It shows that this method is applicable to the wa-termass analysis of the shallow water area.In addition to the above-mentioned sections, this article also contains a brief introduction and some concluding remarks.
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