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《OCEANOLOGIA ET LIMNOLOGIA SINICA》 1999-03
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EFFECT OF AMMONIA-N ON ANTI-DISEASE ABILITY OF PENAEUS CHINENSIS

SUN Jian-jun; DING Mei-li(Institute of Oceanology, The Chinese Academyof Sciences, Qingdao, 266071)  
This article is concerned with how ammonia affects anti-disease ability of Penaeus chinensis and how it induces shrimp diseases. Tests were carried out in the Cultivation Bullding of Institute of Oceanology. From May 24 to June 14 and from Aug. 1 to Aug. 19 in 1996; wild parent P. chinensis which had hatched (bought from Prawn Farm of Shangma Town, Chengyang District Qingdao) and cultured P. chinensis (bought from Prawn Farm of Beisuo Village, Fengcheng Town, Jimo City) were used as test materials. Two ponds were chosen for testing and control samples, respectively, in each of which the same number of shrimps were reared. Except that fixed ammonium chloride was and into the test pond after renewing saltwater (100%) every day, other culture conditions, such as aeration, temperature and amount of diers, were maintained the same way in the two ponds.Water was changed at 08.00 am and diets were added twice every day. Physiochemical and microbiological factors, including ammonia-N, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, salinity, temperature, total heterotrophic basteria and Vibrio sp., were examined regulary.After about 20 days, the blood of shrimps was taken out or the muscle of shrimps was mixed as materials for eash examination; haemocyte number and structure changes of the two group shrimps were compared by hemocytometer and TEM, some enzyme activities relating to antidisease ability were measured by spectrophotometer and susceptibilities to Vibrio sp. were tested by injecting shrimps with Vibriosp.The results show that the haemocyte number of the test shrimps decreased more rapidly than the control and changes in haemocyte structure of the test shrimps occurred, phenoloxidase (PO),superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), bacteriolytic and antibacterial activities of the test sample decreased by 19.1%, 15.1%, 21.4%, 12.5% and 36.6% more than the control one,respectively.In addition, the test group had higher susceptibilities to pathogenic bactoria Vibrio sp.than the control one.In conclusion ammonia-N can reduce enzyme activities of P. chinensis relating to anti-disease ability, increase its susceptibility to pathogen, and make it easy for diseases to occur.
【Fund】: 国家攀登计划B资助!PDB-6-7-2
【CateGory Index】: S945.4
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