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《Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica》 2006-06
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REMEDIATION FROM HARMFUL ALGAE BLOOM WITH ORGANO-CLAY PROCESSED SURFACTANT

WU Ping,YU Zhi-Ming,YANG Gui-Peng  , SONG Xiu-Xian (Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Science.Institute of Oceanology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Qingdao,266071; College of Chemical Engineering,Shandong University of Technology,Zibo 255049; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Ocean University of China,Qingdao,266003) (Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Science.Institute of Oceanology,Chinese of Academy Sciences,Qingdao,266071)  (College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering,Ocean University of China,Qingdao,266003)  
Harmful algal blooms(HABs),commonly known as red tide; it occurred frequently in recent years in many coastal waters,which has caused serious environmental problems with its toxin to aquiculture.To effectively put off the HAB damage,scientists have tried many different countermeasures to remedy the environment; spreading clay was therefore considered as one of the measures.In this paper,two types of clays,kaolinite and bentonite,were tested to remove a red tide organism-Heterosigma akashiwo,a major HAB member in China's coastal waters.However,application of natural clays did not produce a satisfactory result,as the coagulation rate was very slow.In order to enhance the capability of remediation,the clays were processed with a new type of surfactant-dialkyl-polyoxyethe-nyl-quaternary ammonium compound(DPQAC). Before application,the removal rate of the organo-clays was examined.The DPQAC-treated clays showed excellent performance against the red tide organisms(in concentration of 5×104-1×105cell/ml),reaching nearly 100% of killing in 24 hours with clay concentration of 0.03g/L(in which the DPQAC concentration was 3mg/L),while the same concentration of untreated clay did not have such high capability under the same condition. The kinetics of red tide organism coagulation with clays was also studied.The effects of different concentrations of the treated and untreated clays,and various pH values of culture medium on the coagulation rate were examined.The results showed that the algae coagulation rate of kaolinite was faster than that of bentonite; and increasing clay concentration could accelerate the coagulation,but adding DPQAC in clays could considerably improve the algal removal efficiency. Moreover,the toxicity of DPQAC and the influence of organo-clays on mariculture animals were tested.Shrimp Penaeus japonicus was chosen to be the animal.The results showed that the toxicity of DPQAC was 50 times lower than traditionally used hexadecyltrimethyleamine bromide; the LC_ 50 concentration(lethal to 50% of test organisms) was about 61.9mg/L.Combined with clays,the DPQAC toxicity were decreased obviously.The application of DPQAC-treated clays could not only increase algal removal efficiency but also decrease the toxicity of the surfactant in aquiculture. Adding DPQAC to the clays was proved to be an effective countermeasure for remedying HAB,which provides an alternative in real case application in future for enhancing greatly the performance of HAB prevention in aquiculture.
【Fund】: 国家重点基础研究发展规划资助项目 2001CB409710号;; 国家杰出青年科学基金项目 400025614号;; 青岛市自然科学基金资助项目 02-2-kj-yk-32号。
【CateGory Index】: X55
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