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Anatomical Observation and Clinical Significance of the Stimulating Facts of the Cervical Sympathetic Trunk and Sympathetic Ganglia

Wang JinWu, Chen Desong, Wang Jie, et al. (Department of Hand Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical University, Shanghai 200040)  
Objective:To study the anatomic characteristics of cervical sympathetic trunk and sympathetic ganglia and their anatomic relationship with the adjacent tissue of the cervical vertebrae in order to provide anatomic basis for the diagnosis and treatment of the cervical nerve compression syndrome at external intervertebral foremen. Methods: Both sides of 20 Chinese adult cadavers were dissected to observe the anatomic relationship of cervical sympathetic trunk and sympathetic ganglia with the adjacent tissue. The distance between the tendinous decussating origins of the scalenus anticus, the external edges of the tendinous girdles of the musculus longus capitis and the musculus longus colli and the cervical sympathetic trunk was measured. The other two fresh cadavers were also disseted to examine the histology of the muscles. Results:The tumescent lymph nodes were found around the superior cervical sympathetic ganglia. The inferior extremity of the inferior cervical ganglia(stellate ganglia) was adjacent to the first costovertebral joint. The tendinous decussating origins of the scalenus anticus and the tendinous girdles of the musculus longus capitis and the musculus longus colli were all tendious tissue. The distance between the tendinous decussating origins of the scalenus anticus and the cervical sympathetic trunk at the C5 transverse process was 2.6 ± 0.5cm on the left side and 2.1 ± 1.1cm on the right side. The distance between the tendinous girdles of the musculus longus capitis and the musculus longus colli and the cervical sympathetic trunk at the C5 transverse process was 2.4 ± 0. 4cm on the left side and 2. 5 ± 0. 8cm on the right side. Conclusion: Superior cervical sympathetic ganglia, the hyperplastic first costovertebral joint adjacent to the inferior extremity of the inferior cervical ganglia( stellate ganglia), the tendinous decussating origins of the scalenus anticus and tendinous girdles of the musculus longus capitis and the musculus longus colli were the anatomic factors of the cervical sympathetic trunk and the sympathetic ganglia stimulated at external intervertebral foramen.
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