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《Mineral Deposits》 1991-03
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GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND METALLOGENY OF THE BAIYINNUO LEAD-ZINC DEPOSIT, INNER MONGOLIA

Zhang Dequan and Lei Yunfen (Institute of Mineral Deposits, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing) Luo Taiyang, Bao Xiupo and Wang Shengli(No,3 Geological Party, Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Inner Mongolia, Chifcng, Inner Mongolia)  
The Baiyinnuo lead-zinc deposit of eastern Inner Mongolia is a calcio-manganoan skarn type deposit existing in a partially uplifted environment of the Mesozoic volcanic fault depression. Veinlike and lenticular orebodies occur in skarn assuming rather stable stratoid bodies along the contact zone between Yanshanian hypergene-superhypergene intrusive bodies (granodiorite porphyry and quartz syenite porphyry) and Lower Permian marble or limestone. From southwest to northwest in the ore deposit, diopside member in the skarn pyroxene decreases whereas hedenbergite and johannsenite member increases, with the skarn-associated ore types being successively tin-bearing sphalerite-pyrrhotite, copper-zinc, zinc and lead-zinc (silver). Pyroxene associated with galena and sphalerite is rich in manganese, and its johannsenite member reaches 13.4—50.8% in content. There exist two metallogenic epochs, related respectively to granodiorite and quartz syenite porphyry. Each epoch might be further divided into three stages, i. e., skarn, quartz sulfides and sulfides-sulfosalts. In the skarn stage, manganhedenbergite and johannsenite formed obviously later than diopside and sahlite. Quartz-sulfide stage, the main metallogenic stage for lead-zinc ore, is characterized by galena,sphalerite,pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and minor quartz replacing garnet and pyroxene. The sulfide-sulfosalt stage is noted for calcite, galena, sphalerite and bismuth-antimony sulfosalts. Horizontally, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite and bismuth sulfosalts are commonly observed in the southwest part, while galena, sphalerite and antimony sulfosalts tend to concentrate in the northeast. Fluid inclusion determination and calculation indicate that, from the early skarn stage to late sulfide-sulfosalt stage, temperature, salinity, pressure and fo_2 of hot fluids decreased steadily while fs_2 increased gradually, with the hot fluid system changing from alkaline through acid to weak alkaline and the environment from oxidation to reduction. Ore minerals precipitated approximately in order of oxides-sulfides-sulfosalts, and lead-zinc ores formed in an acid and reducing environment with temperature 400—220℃ concentration 2.5—15wt% (NaCl equivalent) and pressure 160×10~5—600×15~5Pa. The extremely low δ~(18)O values of garnet (3.70—-9.65‰—SMOW), clinopyroxene(-6.00—-12.46‰ and quartz (-2.78—-6.08‰ are very peculiar.The δ~(18)O_(H_2O)(-11.17—-13.75‰ and δD(-118—-120‰ values coincide with the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of Mesozoic meteoric water of this region. This suggests that the Baiyinnuo lead-zinc deposit must have been a product of meteoric water activated by Mesozoic magma.
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